Kazakh: көрімдік; "koru" to see a tradition of presenting a person with a gift to congratulate him on a gain in his life



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1.Read and translate the text. Put four questions to the text.

Traditions of Kazakh people

Kazakhs are known for their hospitality, and so many Kazakh traditions are based on this ethnic feature. Some traditions have been lost, but some have been rediscovered. Below are some of the traditions that continue to play a role in the modern Kazakh society:

Konakasy (Kazakh: қонақасы; "konak" - guest, "as" - food) - a tradition to welcome a guest and make his stay as enjoyable as one can by providing food, lodge, entertainment. Depending on the circumstances under which a guest had come from, he is either called "arnayy konak" (Kazakh: арнайы қонақ) - a specially invited guest, "kudayy konak" (Kazakh: құдайы қонақ) - a casual traveller, or "kydyrma konak" (Kazakh: қыдырма қонақ) - an unexpected visitor.[4]

Korimdik (Kazakh: көрімдік; "koru" - to see) - a tradition of presenting a person with a gift to congratulate him on a gain in his life. The custom is called korimdik, if a gain is related to a person or an animal (e.g. seeing a person's daughter-in-law or a newborn animal for the first time), and baygazy (Kazakh: байғазы), if the gain is material.[4]

Shashu (Kazakh: шашу - to scatter) - a tradition to shower heroes of an occasion with sweets during some festivity. Kazakhs believe that collected delights bring luck.[4]

Bata (Kazakh: бата - blessing) - a form of poetic art, typically given by the most respected or the eldest person to express gratitude for the provided hospitality, give blessing to a person who is about to enter a new phase in life, go through a challenging experience or travel.[4]

Tusau kesu (Kazakh: тұсау кесу - to cut ties) - a tradition to celebrate the first attempts of a child to walk. The legs of a child are tied with a string of white and black colors symbolizing the good and the bad in life. The tie is then cut by a female relative who is energetic and lively in nature, so that the child acquires her qualities. After the string has been cut, it is burnt.[4]

Kyz uzatu (Kazakh: қыз ұзату) - the first wedding party organized by the parents of a bride. The literal translation is "to see off a daughter".[4]

Betashar (Kazakh: беташар; "bet" - face, "ashu" - to open) - the custom (often done at the wedding) to lift a veil from the face of a bride. Today it is mullah who is invited to perform an improvised song, in which he mentions relatives of the groom. During his performance, a bride has to bow every time she hears a name. After the song, a mother of the groom lifts the veil. [4]

Shildehana (Kazakh: шілдехана) - celebration of a birth of a child.[5]

Suinshi (Kazakh: сүйінші) - a tradition to give present to someone who has brought good news.[5]

Cuisine


A platter of horse meat served traditionally as an appetizer.

Traditional Kazakh cuisine revolves around lamb and horse meat, as well as a variety of dairy milk products. For hundreds of years, Kazakhs were herders who raised fat-tailed sheep, Bactrian camels, and horses, relying on these animals for transportation, clothing, and food. The cooking techniques and major ingredients have been strongly influenced by the nation's nomadic way of life. For example, most cooking techniques are aimed at long-term preservation of food. There is a large practice of salting and drying meat so that it will last, and there is a preference for sour milk, as it is easier to save in a nomadic lifestyle.

In recent years, there has been an influx of young westernised Kazakh chefs into the heart of Nur-Sultan, including the now famous Rania Ahmed who spent her early years training in West London’s Michelin Star restaurants. This has resulted in a new breed of cuisine which blends traditional savoury Kazakh dishes with European fast food, such as betinjantabs, proving very popular with younger generations.

Besbarmak, a dish consisting of boiled horse or lamb meat, is the most popular Kazakh dish. Besbarmak is usually eaten with a boiled pasta sheet, and a meat broth called shorpa, and is traditionally served in Kazakh bowls called kese. Other popular meat dishes are kazy (which is a horse meat sausage that only the wealthy could afford), shuzhuk (horse meat sausages), kuyrdak (also spelled kuirdak, a dish made from roasted horse, sheep, or cow offal, such as heart, liver, kidneys, and other organs, diced and served with onions and peppers), and various horse delicacies, such as zhal (smoked lard from horse's neck) and zhaya (salted and smoked meat from horse's hip and hind leg). Pilaf (palaw) is the most common Kazakh rice dish, with vegetables (carrots, onions, and/or garlic) and chunks of meat. The national drinks are kumys (fermented mare's milk) and tea.

2. Read and translate the text. Put four questions to the text.

TRADITIONS AND CUSTOMS IN BRITAIN


Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions. In Britain traditions play a more important part in people's life than in other countries.

The British are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. Some ceremonies are rather formal, such as the Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace, Trooping the Colour, the State opening of Parliament. Sometimes you will see a group of cavalrymen riding on black horses through the streets of London. They wear red uniforms, shining helmets, long black boots and long white gloves. These men are Life Guards. Their special duty is to guard the king or the queen of Great Britain and very important guests of the country.

To this day a British family prefers a house with a fireplace and a garden to a flat in a modern house with central heating. Most British love gardens. Sometimes the garden in front of the house is a little square covered with cement painted green in imitation of grass and a box of flowers. They love flowers very much.

The British like animals very much, too. Pet dogs, cats, horses, ducks, chickens, canaries and other friends of man have a much better life in Britain than anywhere else. In Britain they have special dog shops selling food, clothes and other things for dogs. In recent years the British began to show love for more "exotic" animals such as crocodiles, elephants, tigers, cobras, camels.

Holidays are especially rich in old traditions and are different in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and England. Christmas is a great English national holiday and in Scotland it is not observed at all. But six days later, on New Year's Eve the Scots begin to enjoy themselves. All the shops and factories are closed on New Year's Day. People invite their friends to their houses. Greetings and presents are offered.

Some British traditions are strange, some are funny, but they are all interesting.

 

 TIME FOR TEA



The British and tea are inseparable. 8 out of 10 people in Britain drink tea every day and Britain imports about 20% of all the world's tea. Tea makes up about half of all that a British person drinks. Tea has even played a part in British literature and history.

Exercise

3 .Complete these sentences with 'already', 'still', 'always' or 'yet'.

1.John moved to London 10 years ago and he ___________ lives there.

2.Julie ______________ walks to school.

3."What time is the accountant coming?"  "He's ____________ here!"

4."I ordered a book last week.  Has it arrived ______________?"

5."Do you ______________ take milk in your coffee?"

6.I've been taking lessons  but I __________ haven't made much progress""

7.Emma moved in last week and she _____________ knows everyone!

8.I _______________ save my files and turn off the computer before I leave.

9.Peter sent in an application form two weeks ago but he __________ hasn't received a reply.



10.The manager resigned yesterday, but his resignation hasn't been officially announced __________.

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