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PHYSICS – SCIENCE OF NATURE

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PHYSICS – SCIENCE OF NATURE


T1

TOPIC

Physics – the language of nature.

Learning goal

Give examples of physical processes


1 Write 3 physical processes from daily life at school, outside and at home.

Physical processes

at school

outside

at home

1










3










2










2 What physical processes do you see in the picture? Discuss in groups.


Name physical phenomena


T2

TOPIC

International system of units.

Precision of measurements and calculations.

Learning goal

Use SI to measure physical quantities




1 Fill the table

Physical quantity

Measuring device

Basic unit of measure

Mass







Time







Length







Temperature







2. Read the text and fill the table.

Measuring Time



The Egyptians were the first people to measure time, about 5,000 years ago. They divided their days into two periods of twelve equal hours, as we do today. The first timepieces included sundials and other clock forms that measured the changes in levels of water or sand. These were inaccurate, and it was not until the 1600s that the more reliable pendulum clock was invented by the Dutch scientist

Christian Huygens (1629-95). 





The new information for me

It interested me








T3

TOPIC

Scalar and vector physical quantities

Learning goal

Tell the difference between scalar and vector quantities




1 Read the short text and finish the sentences.

Most of the quantities used to describe motion can be categorized as either vectors or scalars. A vector is a quantity that is fully described by both magnitude and direction. A scalar is a quantity that is fully described by magnitude alone.

1.1 A quantity that is ignorant of direction is referred to as a _________________.

a. scalar quantity b. vector quantity



1.2 A quantity that is conscious of direction is referred to as a _________________.

a. scalar quantity b. vector quantity

2. You run from your house to a friend's house that is 3 miles away. Then you walk home.

Answer the questions

2.1 What distance did you travel? _____________

2.2 What was the displacement for the entire trip? ______________

T4

TOPIC

Scientific notation

Learning goal

Use scientific notation and unit prefixes




1. Fill the table

Symbol

Name

Factor

G



















1000000

K
















10-3







micro







n












T5

TOPIC

Lab work 1 ‘Measurement of small objects’

Learning goal

Determine dimensions of small objects by measuring many objects arranged in order

Title

Measurement of small objects

Objectives

1. Determine dimensions of small objects by measuring many objects arranged in order

2. Learn and apply safety rules in physics lab



Procedure

1. Wind the wire around the pencil 20 times. Be careful not to leave any gaps between the turns as shown in the figure

2. Measure the length of the wound wire using a ruler and write this value (L) in millimeters (mm) in the table below.



Number of measurement

Number of turns

Wound wire’s length

Diameter of the wire

Mean value of the diameter

n

L,mm

D,mm



1

20










2

30







3

40







3. Repeat your measurements with 30 and 40 complete turns. Add these values in your table.

4. Dividing the length of the wound by the number of turns, calculate the diaveter of the wire:

Chapter 2

MOTION

T6

TOPIC


Motion. Frame of reference

Learning goal

Explain meaning of such concepts as point particle, frame of reference, trajectory, distance, displacement, relativity of motion

1. Make sure you know all the words in the box. Read their definitions and match the words with their definitions

1

Point particle



A

It shows the change in position of an object

2

Distance



B

It is an appropriate representation of any object whose size, shape and structure are irrelevant in a given context

3

Displacement



C

It is a scalar quantity that refers to "how much ground an object has covered" during its motion.



T7

TOPIC


Relativity of motion.

Learning goal



Give examples of relative motion

1 Carefully examine the picture

A) Determine the speed of the passenger on the train relative to the train ___________________________

B) Determine the speed of the passenger on the train relative to the stationary observer _______________

T8

TOPIC

Linear uniform and non-uniform motion

Learning goal

Tell difference between linear and non-linear motion

1. Compare the uniform motion and the non-uniform motion using the Venn diagram

2. Write 3 examples of uniform motion and non-uniform motion in daily life




Uniform motion

Non-uniform motion











T9

TOPIC

Velocity. Speed. Average speed




Learning goal

Calculate speed and average speed of motion







1. Compare velocity and speed using the Venn diagram

2 A car moves with a constant speed on a distance of 12.6 km in 15 min. What is the car’s speed in metres per second?

3 An airplane flew at the speed of 800 km/h during 3 h. what is the distance flown by the plane in kilometres?

4 An average speed of a hummingbird is about 28 miles/hour (Cool facts: They visit up to 1000 flowers per day, and reach maximum speed while diving … up to 100 miles/hour!). Ruby-throated hummingbirds take a 2000 mile journey when they migrate, including a non-stop trip across Gulf of Mexico in which they fly for 18 hours straight! How far is the trip across the Gulf of Mexico?



T10

TOPIC

Graphs of motion

Learning goal

Use displacement –time graph to determine time when object is in rest and time when object is in motion. Use displacement –time graph to determine time when object is in rest and time when object is in motion

1 Examine the Given Graph on the left. Match it to the corresponding graph on the right that describes the same motion.





2 Five stages - labeled A, B, C, D, and E - of an object's motion are represented by the position-time graph. During which stage (s) is the object at rest?

Chapter 3



DENSITY. FORCE




T11

TOPIC

Inertia




Learning goal

Explain inertia and give examples of physical processes with inertia













1. Carefully examine the picture. Repeat the experiment and try to explain it with the help of inertia

2. Fill the table



Advantages of inertia in daily life

Disadvantages of inertia in daily life







3. Inertia can be the best described as _____.

a. the force that keeps moving objects moving and stationary objects at rest.

b. the willingness of an object to eventually lose its motion.

c. the force that causes all objects to stop.



d. the tendency of any object to resist change and keep doing whatever it's doing.

T12

TOPIC

Mass

Learning goal

Measure mass of an object by using electronic scales, spring scales and lever scales

1. BMI stands for body mass index. It helps to figure out if your weight may be affecting your health. The formula of BMI is given as



Find your own BMI.



T13

TOPIC

Volume

Learning goal

Use measuring cylinder to measure volume of liquid or volume of irregular body







Lab work

Title


Measuring the volume of irregularly shaped bodies

Objectives



1. Determining the volume of a stone

2. Know and apply safety rules of physics lab

Procedure

1. Pour water into the measuring cylinder. It is initial volume of liquid in a cylinder

2. Immerse the stone into the water completely.

3. Measure the final volume of the liquid (

4. Find the difference between initial volume and final volume





T14

TOPIC

Density

Learning goal

Explain physical meaning of density

Apply formula of density to problem solving






1. Carefully consider the drawing .Find the density of stone

2. What is the volume of a wooden block of mass 7.2 g? ( )



T15

TOPIC

Force

Learning goal

Give examples of forces in every life

1 Match the definition and text

A) Unit of force

B) Measuring force

C) Force and Inertia

1) Force is a vector quantity: it always has a direction and magnitude. We represent force by the letter F. The unit of force is Newtons (N). This is the surname of the great scientist.

2) A spring stretched when we pull it. The harder we pull, the more the spring stretches. Thus, we can use the spring to measure force. A spring with graduation is called spring balance or dynamometer. To pull upward 100 g of mass on the Earth, we need approximately 1 N of force. In other words: to pull 1 kg of mass on the Earth we need 10 N.



3) Force can start motion and it can also stop motion. Consider 2 cases. One person pulls boxes of 100 kg, and another pulls a car of 2550 kg. If we answer the question ‘which load is easier to move?’, the answer is boxes. It is because 100 kg is lighter than 2550 kg. The car has greater mass. In physics, we say that the car has greater inertia, the more difficult to accelerate or slow down the object. The greater the mass, the inertia we have.

T16




TOPIC

Gravity. Gravitational force. Weight




Learning goal

Tell difference between weight and gravitational force

1 Read the text and fill out the table.

Gravity

The force of gravity acts between any two bodies of matter. Everything on Earth, including your body, is pulled down to the Earth's surface by gravity, and this pull gives you your weight. Gravity, which, like other forces, is measured in newtons (N), exerts 9.81 N on every 2.2 pounds (1kg) of matter.

Object

Mass

Gravity (N)

Humming bird

2 g




Elephant

5 t




Horse

500 kg




2 Compare the gravity and the weight using the Venn diagram





T17

TOPIC

Weight

Learning goal

Explain the difference between weight and mass

1 Read the text and mark each statement true (T) or false (F). Mass and Weight

Your weight is the force that you exert on the Earth. It is a result of gravity acting on your body. On the moon, your weight would be much less than it is on Earth, because of the weaker pull of the moon's gravity. Weight differs from mass: your mass is constant whatever the force of gravity. Scientists measure mass in kilograms (kg). This indicates the amount of matter in your body. Scientists measure weight in newtons (N),

and 1 kg equals a force of 9.81 N. 

Statements


  1. An object weighs less on the moon than it does on the Earth.

  2. Mass of an object on the Moon is the same as its mass on the Earth Масса объекта на Луне такая же, как и его масса на Земле.

  3. Weight is measured in pounds; mass is measured in Newtons.

  4. A free-falling object still has weight.



T18

TOPIC

Hooke’s law

Learning goal

Calculate force of a spring by using Hooke’s law.

Explain the difference between elastic and inelastic deformation



1. People can jump over 3 meters when they use pogo stick. Why? How?

2. The spring stretched from 10 cm to 22 cm when a force of 4 N is applied. If it obeys Hooke’s law, its total length in cm when a force of 6 N is applied is



T19

TOPIC

Friction

Learning goal

Describe kinetic friction, static friction, rolling friction

Give examples of useful effect of friction and harmful effect of friction









1. For each of the following cases of a car changing velocity described in the table below, choose whether it is more likely to be the force of static or kinetic friction causing the change in velocity.

Cases

Static

frictional force

Kinetic

frictional force

A car slows gently to a stop.







A car slams on the brakes and skids to a stop.







A car accelerates gently to a higher speed.







A car "floors it" and peels out of a stop light.







A car takes a turn gently.







2. Fill the table

Negative effect of friction in your daily life

Positive effect of friction in your daily life









Chapter 4


Pressure




T20

TOPIC

Molecular structure of solids, liquids and gases




Learning goal

Describe the structure of solid, liquid and gas by using concepts of atom and molecule







1 Match them

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Air, table, door, milk, smoke, water, river, steam, rock, apple, juice, break, tea, wind, rain








2. Compare the solid, liquid and gas using the Venn diagram





T21

TOPIC

Pressure of solids

Learning goal

Explain physical meaning of pressure and describe methods of changing pressure


1. Yeah, people do this. Since it's the total area over which the force is distributed that counts, the total surface area of all the nails can reduce the pressure that's created by your weight downward. How can you reduce the pressure?
2. Find the pressure you exert on floor.

1. Find the area of the sole of your shoes in squared metres. Hint: wet your sole and make them step on paper with squares.

2. Calculate your weight in newtons.

3. Find the pressure in Pascals.




T22

TOPIC

Pressure of liquid

Learning goal

Explain the Pascal’s law







1. Which of the containers experiences a greater water pressure than others?

2. Explain this picture. With the help of what law this phenomenon is explained






T23

TOPIC

Communicating vessels. Hydraulic machines

Learning goal

Give examples of use of communicating vessels in daily life. Describe working principles of hydraulic machines.

1. A good example is on the picture. One person can balance a group of people on a hydraulic lift. The group of people weighs more than one person. However, they stand on the large piston. One person stands on a small piston. It is possible to reach equilibrium by arranging right areas of pistons. Write the essay about the using hydraulic machines in daily life and exchange with your classmates.

2. Carefully consider the picture and explain the principle of the brakes in the car





T24

TOPIC

Measurement of atmospheric pressure. Manometer. Pump

Learning goal

Explain nature of atmospheric pressure.

Tell about the methods of measuring atmospheric pressure



Describe working principles of manometer and pump


1. Carefully consider the picture, answer the questions and discuss in group.

1.1 How does the density of the atmosphere change with increasing altitude?

1.2. How does the atmospheric pressure change with a decrease in altitude?
25.2 Retell this text your classmates

How does your heart work?

Your heart is made up of 2 pumps. The pump on the right hand side receives blood that has already delivered its oxygen round the body and sends this blood to the lungs to pick up more oxygen (and get rid of carbon dioxide).

The pump on the left hand side receives oxygen-rich blood and then pumps it out into the arteries to deliver its oxygen around the body.

T25

TOPIC

Upthrust.

Condition of floating

Learning goal

Explain nature of upthrust force in liquids and gases.

Investigate conditions of floating






1. Half of a spherical ball floats in a liquid of density 1.30 g/cm3. If the volume of the ball is 200 cm3, what is it’s mass?

2. Three balls constructed from different kinds of material K,L,M of the same volume, are floating in water as shown in the figure. Upthrust forses acting on the object are FK, FL, FM. which of the following statements is correct concerning these forces?

A) FK=FL=FM B) FK> FL> FM

C) FL > FM =FK D) FK =FM= FL

Chapter 5



Work. Power. Energy

T26

TOPIC

Mechanical work

Power

Learning goal

Explain physical meaning of mechanical work and power.

1. Match situations and pictures

A) A force acts rightward upon an object as it is displaced rightward. In such an instance, the force vector and the displacement vector are in the same direction.

1



B) A force acts leftward upon an object that is displaced rightward. In such an instance, the force vector and the displacement vector are in the opposite direction.


2

C) A force acts upward on an object as it is displaced rightward. In such an instance, the force vector and the displacement vector are at right angles to each other.


3

2. Two physics students, Will N. Andable and Ben Pumpiniron, are in the weightlifting room. Will lifts the 100-pound barbell over his head 10 times in one minute; Ben lifts the 100-pound barbell over his head 10 times in 10 seconds. Which student does the most work? ______________ Which student delivers the most power? ______________ Explain your answers.



3. A motor can pull a 400 kg box up to a vertical height of 10 m in 4 sec. what is the work and power of the motor?


T27

TOPIC

Kinetic energy. Potential energy

Learning goal

Explain the difference between kinetic and potential energies.

1. Compare the kinetic energy and the potential energy using the Venn diagram

2. What is the kinetic energy of a 50 kg boy who runs at a speed of 4 m/s?

3. A 15 kg object falls by 5 m vertically. Find the decrease in potential energy of the object.

4. What work is needed to stretch a spring’s length from 40 cm to 50 cm. The force constant of the spring is given as 800 N/m.





T28

TOPIC

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

Learning goal

Give examples of energy transforming from one shape to another

Consider the falling motion of the ball in the following two frictionless situations. For each situation, indicate the forces doing work upon the ball. Indicate whether the energy of the ball is conserved and explain why. Finally, simplify the work-energy equation and use it to find the kinetic energy and the velocity of the 2-kg ball just prior to striking the ground.



T29

TOPIC

Simple machines

Learning goal

Give examples of use of simple machines and formulate ‘Mechanical Advantage’

1. Read the text and answer the questions

Simple Machines


A simple machine is something that reduces the effort needed to do work. Machines come in all shapes and sizes and can be very basic; a bottle opener, a screw, and even your skeleton, work as machines. They magnify the effort that we apply to a task and enable us to do many things that our muscular strength alone could not manage. The amount of effort saved by using a machine is known as its mechanical advantage. The greater the mechanical advantage of a machine, the less effort is

required relative to the load. 
1. What function do the simple machines?

2. What is mechanical advantage?





T30

TOPIC

Centre of mass

Learning goal

Experimentally determine centre of mass of different bodies

1. Find the centre of mass of your ruler, pen, rubber, book and etc.

T31

TOPIC

Equilibrium of lever

Learning goal

Experimentally determine conditions for equilibrium of lever

1. Read the text and retell to you classmates or teacher.

Levers


Levers are simple machines that help us achieve tasks with less effort. They consist of a rod or a bar that turns around a point called a pivot. There are three classes of lever, with different arrangements of load, effort, and pivot. A crowbar that is used to lift something heavy is an example of a simple lever working on its own. But a lever may form part of a larger machine or system. If the effort is applied farther away from the pivot than from the load, it is magnified, or increased. 




T32

TOPIC

Efficiency of inclined plane

Learning goal

Determine efficiency of inclined plane

1. Find the efficiency of stairs in your school when you carry your bag.


Literature

  1. Р. Башарұлы. Физика 7. Алматы, Атамұра, 2017 ж.

  2. A. Karabatyrov, A. Baieshov, and etc. Physics. Grade 7. 1st edition. Астана-кітап. Астана, 2017

  3. https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/forces-newtons-laws/inclined-planes-friction/a/what-is-friction

  4. http://englishon-line.ru/fisika.html

  5. http://www.physicsclassroom.com


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