A branch of study. Methods (Методика) as a branch of study is the science of ways or manners (methods) of teaching. Methods of foreign language teaching is the science of methods teaching foreign languages

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LITERATURE

1. G.V. Rogova. Methods of Teaching English. M. 1983

2. Е И Пассов. Основы методики обучения иностранным языкам. М. 1977

3. Теоретические основы методики обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе. Под ред. А. Д. Климентенко и др. М. 1981



Lecture 14

Theme: Teaching Writing in a Secondary School Problems for Discussion

1. Roles of writing in the Learning and Use of Language. Writing as a skill.

2. Difficulties pupils have in Learning to Write English

3. Stages in the Development of Writing Proficiency

4. How to Teach Writing

5. Examples of Exercises to Develop the Writing skills

6. Summary
1. The aims of instruction in a foreign language includes, besides speaking and reading it, also writing it. Every school graduate must be capable of writing a letter in the foreign language he has studied, to keep up a correspondence in it with friends living abroad. Writing in the foreign language is also a very important means of instruction. As a means of instruction writing serves to consolidate both acquired linguistic knowledge and habits of using the language. Writing helps pupils to assimilate letters and sounds of the English language, its vocabulary and grammar, and to develop habits and skills in pronunciation, speaking , and reading. So writing is very important skill. The practical value of writing is great because it can fix patterns of all kinds (graphemes, words, phrases and sentences) in pupils’ memory, thus producing a powerful effect on their mind.

Writing includes penmanship, spelling, and composition. The latter is the aim of learning to write. Proficiency in expressing one’s thoughts in written form promotes proficiency in the use of the spoken language. Writing is also a highly effective means of testing the pupils’ knowledge and mastery of the foreign language. Setting test papers enables the teacher to appraise the attainments of the whole class and of each pupils in the acquisition of knowledge, in habit formation and in the development of specific skills. In the English language classroom, writing activities serve two different purposes. On the one hand, they help your classroom pupils to learn the kinds of personal, academic or professional writing which they will use in their daily lives. On the other hand, writing in English has a more purely pedagogical role. It reinforces the learning which goes on through the medium of the listening, speaking and reading skills. Since writing is a complicated skill it should be developed through the formation of habits such as:

(1) the habit of writing letters of the English alphabet;

(2) the habit of converting speech sounds into their symbols-letters and letter combinations;

(3) the habit of correct spelling of words, phrases and sentences;

(4) the habit writing various exercises which lead pupils to expressing their thoughts in connection with the task set.

In forming writing habits the following factors are of great importance:

1. Auditory perception of a sound, a word, a phrase, or a sentence, i.e., proper heaving of a sound a word, a phrase or a sentence.

2. Articulation of a sound and pronunciation of a word, a phrase, and a sentence by the pupil who writes.

3. Visual perception of letters or letter combinations which stand for sounds.

4. The movements of the muscles of the hand in writing.

The ear, the eye, the muscles and nerves of the throat and tongue, the movements of the muscles of the hand participate in writing. And at last, but not the least, factor which determines progress in formation and development of lasting writing habits is pupils’ comprehension of some rules which govern writing in the English language.

Our methodology believes that a conscious to teaching and learning a foreign language can ensure pupils’ progress in writing. 2. Since pupils should be taught penmanship, spelling, and composition it is necessary to know the difficulties Kazakhstan pupils find in learning to write English. The writing of the English letters does not present much trouble because there a lot of similar letters in both languages. Only a few letters, such as s, r, t, b, h, l, f, j, I, G, A, N, etc., may be strange to Kazakhstan pupils.

Pupil find it difficult to make each stroke continuous when the body of the letter occupies one space, the stem one more space above, the tail one more space below.

The most difficult thing for Kazakhstan pupils in learning to write is English spelling. The spelling system of a language may be based upon the following principles:

1. Historical or conservative principle when speaking reflects the pronunciation of earlier periods in the history of the language. E.g.: English: busy, brought, daughter.

2. Morphological principle. In writing a word the morphemic composition of the word is taken into account. E.g.; in Russian: рыба, рыбка; the root morpheme is рыб, in English: answered, asked; the affixal morpheme is -ed.

3. Phonetic principle. Spelling reflects the pronunciation. E.g. in Russian: бесконечный - безграничный; in English: leg, pot.

One or another of these principles may prevail in any given language. In French and English the historical or conservative principle dominates. The modern English spelling originated as early as the 15th century and has not been changed since then. The pronunciation has greatly during that time. Significant difference in pronunciation and spelling is the result. The same letters in different words are read differently. E.g. fat, fate, far, fare.

Different letters or letter combinations in different words are read in the same way: I - eye; rode - road; write - right; tale - tail. Many letters are pronounced in some words and are mute in other words; build [bild], laugh [la:f], brought [br :t].

The discrepancy that exists in the English language between pronunciation and spelling may be explained by the fact that there are more sounds in the language that there are letters to stand for these sounds. 20 vowels - 6 letters to convey them. In teaching English spelling special attention should be given, in the words which present much trouble in this respect. The spelling of the words, for example, busy, daughter, beautiful, through and very many others, must be assimilated through manifold repetition in their writing and spelling.

In conclusion it should be said that it is impossible to master accurate spelling without understanding some laws governing it. Pupils should know:

(1) how to add: -s to words ending in y: day-days; city-cities, studystudies; -ed to verbs: play-played; carry-carried; -ing to verbs: writewriting; play-playing; -er, -est to adjectives in the comparative and the superlative degrees: clean-cleaner-cleanest; large-larger-largest;

(2) when the consonant should be doubled: sit-sitting; thin-thinner; swimswimming;

(3) the main word-building suffixes; -ful: use-useful; -less: use-useless; and others. Writing a composition or a letter which is a kind of a composition where the pupil has to write down his own thoughts, in another problem to be solved. The pupil comes across a lot of difficulties in finding the right words, grammar forms and structures among the limited material stored up in his memory.

The pupil often does not know what to write, he wants good and plentiful ideas which will be within his vocabulary and grammar. 3. In the teaching of writing, just as in the teaching of reading, it is helpful to have a long-range overview of how proficiency develops. You will notice that the links between reading and writing become closer as students progress through the three main phases of the sequence.

1. Early stages of writing.

2. Proficiency level. Low beginners.

3. Skills and features of English to learn: use printed/cursive forms of roman alphabet. Learn general spelling and punctuation rules. Use simple word, phrase, and sentence forms.

Expanded writing skills. Proficiency level. High beginners and intermediate students. Skills and features of English to learn. Use commonly occurring word, phrase, and sentence patterns. Write paragraphs with topic sentences and supporting details . Use link words to signal organisation of paragraphs. Practice techniques for pre-writing, revising, editing.

Academic writing skills. Proficiency level. High intermediate and advanced students. Skills and features of English to learn.

Use discourse patterns expected in academic writing. Develop a thesis with appropriate supporting details. Become more independent in the writing process.

General Lesson Plan for Composing Assignments. It is difficult to give a lesson plan which will cover all types of writing tasks. When your pupils are composing you should always have a pre-writing phase and you should always allow plenty of time for revising. In fact, it is so difficult to separate writing and revising that the most appropriate lesson format consists of just two main phases.

1. Pre-writing

a. Brainstorming in various forms, oral and written

b. Analysis of models

c. Reading

d. Notetaking

2. Writing and Revising

a. Time for multiple drafts

b. Feedback from teacher and other

Basic Writing Skills and Reinforcement of Speaking and Listening.

Your pupils may need writing instructions at the most basic level learning to form the letters and other symbols of the English writing system. Pupils needing such instruction range from those who have neither reading nor writing skills in any language to those who are fully literate but who happen not to have learned a language which uses the Roman alphabet.

Here are some general points to consider when teaching writing at this very basic level :

Teaching the printed forms of letters, both capitals and lower case, has the advantage that there will be a closer match between the shapes which students write and the shapes which they must read. However, older learners may feel that printed letters are for children and insist on learning the cursive forms which they associate with adult handwriting. Choose the forms which work best for your students.

- When you began to learn to write in English, you may have learned the letters in alphabetical order. A more efficient to their shapes. For example, a number of lower case letters in their hand printed form are ‘ball and stick’ figures: a, b, d, p, q.

- At the same time that pupils are developing a legible handwriting, they can also learn spelling rules of wide applicability, as well as the use of common punctuation marks (especially the period, question mark, comma, and apostrophe).

Keep in mind that your students should be able to understand everything that they are asked to write. Thus it makes sense to present new content first via the listening and speaking skills, and to use reading and writing to reinforce what has been mastered in the aural/oral activities.

4. Teaching writing should be based on such methodological principles as a conscious approach to forming and developing this skill, visualisation and activity of pupils. Pupils learn to write letters, words, and sentences in the target language more successfully if they understand what they write, have good patterns to follow Dan make several attempts in writing a letter (a word, a sentence) until they are satisfied that the work is well done.

Training in penmanship should proceed by steps.

1. The teacher shows the learners a letter or both a capital and a small letter, for instance, Bb. Special cards may be used for the purpose. On one side of the card the letters are written. On the other side there is a word in which the letters are written. On the other side there is a words in which this letter occurs. E.g. Bb bed

2. The teacher shows his pupils how to write the letter. He can use the blackboard. E.g. V and W are made with one continuous zigzag movement. Q is made without lifting the pen except for the tail. L is also made without lifting the pen.

Whenever the teacher writes on the blackboard he gives some explanations as to know the letter is made, and then how the word is written. His pupils follow the movements of his hand trying to initiate them; they make similar movements with their pens in the air, looking at the blackboard.

3. The teacher asks pupils to write first the letter, then the word in their exercise-book. When pupils are writing he walks round looking at the work they are doing and giving help to the pupils who need it. Since habits are formed and developed through performing actions pupils are told to practise in writing the letter and the word (words) at home.

The teacher’s handwriting and his skill in using the blackboard is of great importance. Children learn by imitating. They usually write in the way the teacher does, so he must be careful in the arrangement of the material on the blackboard because pupils will copy both what is written and how it is written.

Consequently, training in penmanship implies: visual perception; observations accompanied by some explanations on the part of the teacher; practice under the teacher’s supervision in class, and independently at home.

In spelling instruction the teacher should take into consideration the difficulties of English Spelling and instruct pupils how to overcome these difficulties. The following exercises may be suggested for the purpose:

1. Copying. The aim of this exercise is to allow the pupils to practise what has been taught in Listening and Speaking. Writing does this because the movements of the muscles of the hand are now called in to help the ear, the eye and the muscles and nerves of the throat and tongue. The “look” and the “feel” of the word are used to help the memory (F.French). For better assimilation of the spelling of words, it is recommended that various associations should be established, such as:

a) associations by similarity in Spelling: within the Eng. language {room, spoon, moon; thought, bought, brought; night, right, light} between Eng. & Rus words - биография - коммунизм - энтузиазм biography - communism - enthusiasm

b) associations by contrast in spelling: two - too spelling alone distinguishes these see - sea homophones one - won Much care should be given to the words whose spelling does not follow the rules for example, daughter, busy, sure, usual, colonel, clerk, soldier, etc. Pupils master the spelling of such words by means of repetitions in writing them. Copying may be carried out both in class and at home. In copying at home the following tasks may be suggested:

a) underline a given letter or letter combination for a certain sound;

b) underline a certain grammar item;

c) underline certain words depicting , for example, the names of school things.

2. Dictation. This kind of writing exercise is much more difficult then copying. Dictation in a valuable exercise because it trains the ear and the hand as well as the eye; it fixes in the pupil’s mind the division of each sentence patterns, because the teacher dictates division by division. E.g.: Tom and I/go to school/ together. Dictations can vary in forms and in the way they are conducted:

(a) visual dictation as type of written work in intermediate between copying and dictation. The teacher writes a word, or a word combination, or a sentence on the blackboard. the pupils are told to read it and memorise its spelling. then it is rubbed out and the pupils write is from memory.

(b) Dictation drill aims at consolidating linguistic material and preparing pupils for spelling tests.

(c) self-dictation. Pupils are given a text (a rhyme) to learn by heart. After they have learned the text at home the teacher asks to recite it. Then they are told to write it in their exercise-books.

3. Writing sentences on a given pattern. The following exercises may be suggested:

(a) substitution. Mick has a sister. The pupils should use other words instead of a sister.

(b) Completion. E.g. He came home late because..

(c) Extension. Ann brought some flowers (adjective before flowers)

4. Writing answers to given questions. The question helps the pupil both with the words and which the pattern required for the answer. the object of every kind of written exercise mentioned above is to develop pupil’s spelling in the target language and to fix the linguistic material favourable conditions for developing their skills in writing compositions. By composition in this case we mean pupil’s expression of their own thoughts in a foreign language in connection with a suggested situation or a topic within the linguistic material previously assimilated in speech and reading. In teaching compositions the following exercises may be suggested:

1. A written reproduction of a story either heard or read.

2. A description of a picture, an object or a situation.

3. A descriptive paragraph about a text, or a number of texts on a certain subject. Pupils may be given concrete assignments.

4. An annotation on the text read.

5. A composition on a suggested topic.

6. Letter writing. Pupils are usually given a pattern letter in English, which shows the way the English start their letters and end them. Various kinds of tests may be recommended in teaching writing to measure pupils’ achievements in penmanship, spelling and composition (see G.V. Rogova, p. 231-32) 5. Exercises for beginning writers should build on material which is already familiar to the students. The pre-writing phase should contain a lot of oral work and the actual writing done by the students should be limited and controlled in various ways. Here are some suggestions for beginning writing activities.

- Have pupils dictate the first part of a story. After three or four sentences have been dictated, give the students the story to complete independently in writing.

- Give students copies of cartoons from which the characters’ dialogue has been omitted. Have them compose orally, experimenting with various things the characters might say, and then write their ideas on the cartoons.

- Have students invent and act out brief social exchanges: asking directions, making a purchase in a store, greeting someone in the street, ordering food at a snack bar. Then have them write these dialogue form.

Summary Writing activities serve two purposes in the English language classroom:

1) Learning the types of personal, academic, and professional writing which students need in their daily lives.

2) Reinforcing the learning which goes on through the medium of the other language skills. In planning and conducting writing activities with your students:

- be sure to include activities that allow your students to communicate ideas that are meaningful to them;

- include exercises which help your students understand and master the features of written discourse: overall patterns of organisation, ways of expressing logical relationships, and so on. Use pre-writing activities to generate ideas and provide the language resources needed for the writing tasks.

LITERATURE

1. Гез А И и др Методика обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе М 1982

2. G.V. Rogova. Method of Teaching English. Moscow, 1983

3. Ж Жалолов Чет тили укитиш методикаси Тошкент 1996

4. Peter Hubbard and others. A training Course for TEFL. Oxford University Press, 1983

5. Teaching English as a foreign of second language. Washington, DC, May 1989



Lecture 15

Theme: Teaching Speaking in English

Problems for Discussion

1. General Remarks

2. The Most Difficulties of Teaching Speaking a Foreign Language

3. The Content of Teaching Speaking in English

4. Techniques for Teaching Speaking

1. The knowledge of each of the aspect of the language is of great importance to learners. However, when we say a person knows the language we first of all mean he understands the language spoken and can speak it himself.

Speaking in English is also one of the language skills. By speaking information is given. Language came into life as a means of communication. It exists and is alive only through speech. When we speak about teaching a foreign language, we first of all have in mind teaching it as a means of communication. Speech is a bilateral process. It includes hearing, on the one hand, and speaking, on the other. When we say “hearing” we mean auditing or listening and comprehension. Speaking exists in two forms: dialogue and monologue. Speaking is closely interacted with other language skills. If the pupil acquires listening and understanding (Comprehension) skills well his speaking abilities also develops in a quick tempo.

Reading is also interrelated with speaking. The pupil gives information, can speak according to the material he reads. reading is the material base for speaking. The language learner (pupil) can express (write) the information in written form through reading, speaking, and listening. The secondary school syllabus requirement is to carry on a conversation and to speak a foreign language within the topics and linguistic material. Thus, speaking is the practical aim in teaching oral language. Finally, it is use for developing pronunciation habits and skills and, therefore, for reading and writing since they are closely connected with pupils’ ability to pronounce correctly what they read and write. Thus speaking is the most important part of the work during the lesson. Consequently oral language is: • an aim when pupils make use of the target language as a means of communication, i.e. the target language is used for:

(1) Teacher-pupils communication in the classroom;

(2) pupils’ communication when talking on a topic under Teacher’s supervision;

(3) pupils’ communication when working at a text-discussing the problems touched in it;

(4) pupils’ communication during out-of-class activities in the target language;

• a means of teaching and learning a foreign language when it is used:

(1) within the methods of acquisition of new information about a linguistic or language phenomenon and drill and transformation to form pronunciation, lexical, grammar, etc. habits in pupils;

(2) for checking pupils’ comprehension.

2. Speaking a foreign language is the most difficult part in language learning because pupils need ample practice in speaking to be able to say a few words of their own in connection with a situation. This work is time-consuming and pupils rarely feel any real necessity to make themselves understood during the whole period of learning a new language in school. The stimuli the teacher can use are often feeble and artificial. The pupil respects the sentence he hears, he completes sentences that are in the book he constructs sentences on the patterns of a given one. These mechanical drill exercises are, of course, necessary; however, when they go on year after year without any other real language practise they are deadening. There must be occasions when the pupils feel the necessity to inform someone of something, to explain something and to prove something to someone. This is a psychological factor which must be taken into account when teaching pupils to speak a foreign language.

Difficulties of Teaching Speaking a foreign language may be divided into 2 groups:

A) Extralinguistic Difficulties

B) Linguistic Difficulties A.

1. Speech (speaking) may be addressed to someone, or to be devoted to some events, things, some life situations.

2) Creating speech situations, speaking a union (a Group of people) when speaking.

3) The existence of various aids (visual and etc.), means and so on.

4) The necessity of speaking

5) The peculiarities of the conditions where speaking is carried out (the division of the class (form) into 2 parts or not classroom placement and etc.

6) Using various kinds thetic movements, mime and so on while speaking. Besides, there are some psychological difficulties of speaking. The pupil needs words, phrases, sentence patterns, and grammatical forms and structures stored up in his memory ready to be used for expressing any thought he wants to. In teaching speaking, therefore, the teacher should stimulate his pupils’ speech by supplying them with the subject and by teaching them the words and grammar they need to speak about the suggested topic or situation. The teacher should lead his pupils to unprepared speaking through prepared speaking.

B. Linguistic difficulties of Speaking

1. the right selection of lexical and grammatical items (material), speech patterns necessary for speaking.

2. the difficulties in the usage , meaning and content of the lexical and grammatical (item) necessary for speaking.

3. the difficulties in the correct pronunciation, tone (tune) and rhythm affecting the speaking process.

4. the difficulties in the usage of speech patterns, phrases Besides speaking has the following difficulties too:

a) speaking not in a literary standard language but in a colloquial style

b) sentences, phrases are made very short: Have you? and you? How many books have you? - One. and the like.

c) shortened forms are widely used: don’t, won’t, I’ve, shan’t and so on.

d) shortened words are widely used: laboratory - lab; microphone-mike; mathematics-maths.

e) making remarks: Well, Hello, why not, Hey, etc.

Speaking exists in two forms: dialogue and monologue. There are some peculiarities of the monologue and dialogue speaking. Speech may also be divides into: prepared (ready -made) and spontaneous (unprepared). It is considered prepared when the pupil has been given time enough to think over its content and form. He can speak on the subject following three plan made either independently at home or in class under the teacher’s supervision. His speech will be more or less correct and sufficient fluent since plenty of preliminary exercises had been done before. In schools, however, pupils often have to speak on a topic when they are not yet prepared for it. As a result only bright pupils can cope with the task. The teacher should encourage each pupil to speak on the subject in his own way and thus develop pupils initiative and thinking. The pupils’ speech is considered unprepared when, without any previous preparation, he can do the following: - speak on a subject suggested by the teacher (E.g. winter holidays, or Football match).

- speak on the text read. For example, pupils have read two or three chapters of Robin Hood.

-speak on the text heard:

- Discuss a problem or problems touched upon in the test read or heard.

- have an interview with “a foreigner”.

-Help “a foreigner’, for example, to find the way to the main street or square of the town; or instruct him as to places of interest in the town. This may be done directly or with the help of “an interpreter.”

There are, of course, other techniques foe stimulating pupils’ unprepared speech. The teacher chooses the techniques most suitable for his pupils since he knows their aptitudes, their progress in the language, the time he has at his disposal for developing speaking skills, the concrete material at which pupils are working. It should be said that prepared and unprepared speech must be developed simultaneously from the very beginning. The relationship between prepared and unprepared speech should vary depending on the stage of learning the language. In the junior stage prepared speech takes the lead, while in the senior stage unprepared speech should prevail.

3. The content of teaching speaking in English comprises the following three aspects: Linguistic, Psychological and methodological.




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