A branch of study. Methods (Методика) as a branch of study is the science of ways or manners (methods) of teaching. Methods of foreign language teaching is the science of methods teaching foreign languages


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1. G.V. Rogova. Methods of Teaching English. Moscow, 1983.

2. Peter Hubbard. A Training Course for TEFL. Oxford University Press, 1987.

Lecture 10

Theme: Teaching Grammar

Problems for Discussion

1. The Importance of Grammar in Learning a Foreign Language

2. Comparative Characteristics of the English Grammar Structure with that of Mother Tongue of the Pupils (the Most Common Difficulties Pupils have in Assimilating English Grammar).

3. The Content of Teaching Grammar. The Principles of Selecting Grammar Material for Teaching.

4. How to Teach Grammar

5. Types of Exercises for Assimilation of Grammar

1. The Importance of Grammar in learning a Foreign Language

Grammar is one of the components of language together with the sound system and vocabulary. Studying grammar teaches you how total and write correctly. Teaching grammar of the pupils deals with the formation of grammar skills of the schoolchildren. That means the assimilation of word forms and combination of words in phrases and sentences, the study of how words and phrases are arranges in the expression of thoughts and ideas. This study (grammar ) of the language is parallel to a biologist’s study of a plant or animal: What are the various organs in this organism? How for they work? What do they do? How do they interact with one another? The learner needs to know what the words of the language are and what they mean. He also needs to know how to combine these words to say what he wants to say.

A command of the grammar structure of the language of the pupil ensures hearing, speaking, reading and writing. Grammar play the role of forming and arranging the words, because like the vocabulary and the sound structure of the language grammar also makes material based of the language. It gives one definite meaning to the words in order to express the meaning (idea).

E.g. At the same time these word forms are arranged into word combinations, sentences and texts, according to the syntactical features of the language.

That means a person having starts to utter the first word takes himself a grammatical obligation. It stimulates for searching rules of combination of words as a whole unit in the mind. Without assimilating the grammar mechanic, of the language one may fail to understand the sentence or to express himself correctly even if all the words are familiar:

E.g. We saw him book a ticket. It made me return home. Because each of the examples includes some grammar difficulties for Kazakhstan - speaking pupils (here infinitive construction and unusual meaning of the familiar words book and make). The pupil must look the word book up in a dictionary under v. In the second sentence the verb make is used in the meaning of «заставлять». The pupil can easily recognise it f he has learnt the infinitive construction.

No speaking is possible without the knowledge of grammar, without the forming of a grammar mechanism. If a learner has acquired such a mechanism, he can produce correct sentences in a foreign language. Paul Roberts writes: «Grammar is something that produces the sentences of language. By something we mean a speaker of English. If you speak English natively, you have built into you the ruled of English grammar. In a sense, you are an English grammar. You posses, as an essential part of your being, a very complicated apparatus which enables you to produce infinitely many sentences, all English ones, including many that you have never specifically learned. Furthermore, by applying your rule you can easily tell whether sentences that your hear is grammatical English sentence or not.»

A command of English as is envisaged by the school syllabus cannot be ensured without the study of grammar. Pupils need grammar to be able to and, speak, read, and write in the target language.

2. Comparative Characteristics of the English Grammar Structure with that of Mother Tongue of the Pupils (the Most common difficulties pupils have in Assimilating English Grammar).

The fact that English and Kazakhstan belong to different families of languages says that they have both similarities and differences in Grammar structure. From the viewpoint of morphological level in both languages there exist the endings (suffixes) of number and case in the nouns, tense, voice, mood, person and number categories of the verbs. But these categories are realised in different ways and causes much difficulties in the process of learning English.

бес кітап (тар) five books

он студент(тер) ten students

The formation of the noun plural form in English by vowel and consonant changing in the stem is one more differentiating feature of English nouns.

E.g. Man - men foot-feet

адам - адамдар аяқ - аяқтар

So the chief difficulty in a new language learning is that of changing from the grammatical mechanism of the native language to that of the new language. Indeed, every language has its own way of fitting words together that in Kazakhstan. The word order in: Tom gave Helen a rose indicates what was given (a rose), to whom (Helen), and by who, (Tom).

If we change the word order and say Helen gave Tom a rose, we shall change the meaning of the sentence. In Kazakhstan, due to inflections, which are very important in this language, we can say.

Both in English and Kazakhstan nouns have the category of case but there are 6 cases in Kazakhstan while English nouns have only two (Common and Possessive).

The English tense system also present a lot of trouble to Kazakhstan speaking pupils because of the difference which exists in these languages with regard to time and tense relations. For example, the pupil cannot at first understand why he must say I have seen him today and I saw him yesterday. For him, the action is completed in both sentences, and he does not associate it in any way with today or yesterday.

The sequence of tenses is another difficult point of English grammar for Kazakhstan - speaking pupils because there is no such phenomenon in their mother tongue. Why should he say She said she was busy when She is busy?

The use of modal verbs in various types of sentences is very difficult for the learner.

For example, - May I go home? - No, you mustn’t. - May I take your pen? - Yes, you may. - Must I do it? - No, you needn’t.

Pupils find some specific yes of infinitive, participle and gerund constructions difficult. E.g. I saw him run (running). I want you to go there. There were seen to arrive. After finishing their work they went home.

The most difficult point of English grammar is the article because it is completely strange to Kazakh pupils. Preposition of English also cause great difficulties.

On the syntactical level there are some similarities and differences between the two languages. The word order in the English sentence presents one more difficulty.

The word order in English is more strict but in Kazakhstan it is free.

E.g. The hunter caught the hare.

It is impossible to change the word order in English. The hare caught the hunter. Caught the hunter the hare.

One cannot find such English sentence constructions as «there is/are»: I had my haircut in Kazakhstan. Such structural types of Kazakh sentences as Суық. Жаз. (It is cold. It is summer.) cannot be find in English.

In teaching grammar, therefore, the teacher should approach to the material differently depending on the difficulties pupils encounter in the assimilating of a grammar phenomenon. He should choose the most effective methods and techniques for developing grammar skills of the children.

3. The Content of Teaching Grammar. The Principles of Selecting Grammar Material for Teaching.

«Grammar», i.e., what is meant by «grammar»? This is the question to be answered before speaking about the selection of grammar material. By grammar one can mean adequate comprehension and correct usage of words in the act of communication. Such knowledge is acquired by a child in the mother tongue before he goes to school, he has no idea of the system of the language; he simply uses the system. The child learns to speak the language, and to use all the word-endings for singular and plural, for tense, and all other grammar rules without special grammar lessons only due to the abundance of auditing and speaking.

His young mind grasps the facts and «makes» simple grammar rules for arranging the words to expresses various thoughts and feelings. Sometimes little children make mistakes. But mistakes are corrected as the child grows older and learns more of his language. By «grammar» we also mean the system of the language, the discovery and description of the nature of language itself. It is not a natural grammar, but a constructed one. There are several constructed grammars: traditional, structural and transformational grammars.

Traditional grammar studies the forms of words (morphology) and how they are put together in sentences (syntax); structural grammar studies structures of various levels of the language (morpheme level) and syntactical level; transformational grammar studies basic structures and transformation rules.

We need the simplest and shortest grammar that meets the requirements of the school syllabus in foreign languages.

Since graduates are expected to acquire language proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking and reading grammar material should be selected for the purpose.

There exist the following principles of selecting grammar material both for teaching speaking knowledge (active minimum) and for teaching reading knowledge (passive minimum):

1. the principle of frequency, i.e. how frequently this or that grammar item occurs.

2. the principle of sampleness (принцип образцовости)

3. the absence of synonymical grammar phenomenon.

4. the principle of polysemia, for instance, is of great importance.

5. Pupils should be taught to distinguish such grammar items which serge to express different meanings.


Past Indefinite

Present Participle


Past Participle


Verbal Noun

Plural of Nouns

- s(es)

the 3rd person singular of Present Indefinite

According to the first principles grammar phenomenon which are widely used for speaking and which spread on a large vocabulary are selected to the active minimum. For instance, the Past Perfect in English is not used in oral speaking, but frequently used in writing (books). So it is included into Passive minimum. According to the third principle the modal verb «must» is included into Active but its equivalent «to have to + infinitive» included into Passive minimum.

Passive minimum is selected according to the following principles:

1. the principle of frequency of usage in bookish style.

2. the principle of polysemia.

Although the content of grammar teaching is disputable among teachers and methodologists, and there are various approaches to the problem, pupils should, whatever the content of the course, assimilate the ways of fitting words together to form sentences and be able to easily recognise grammar forms and structures, while hearing and reading, to reproduce. Phrases and sentences stored up in their memory and say or write sentences of their own, using grammar items appropriate to the situation.

4. How to Teach Grammar

Teaching grammar at school be based upon the following principles:

1. Conscious approach to the teaching grammar. This means that in sentence patterns teaching points are determined so that pupils can concentrate their attention on some elements of the pattern to be able to use them as orienting points when speaking or writing the target language. For example, I can sees a book. I can see many books. The man asked for your telephone number. The man was asked for your telephone number. The teacher draws pupils’ attention to the new element in the sentence pattern. The teaching point may be presented in the form of a rale, a very short one. It is usually done in the mother tongue. This ensures a conscious approach to learning. They only help to attain the practical goal. Conscious learning is also ensured when a grammar item is contrasted with another grammar item which is usually confused. The contrast is brought out through oppositions.

I get up at 7 o’clock.

It’s 7. I am getting up.

I was reading at 2 yesterday.

Give me the book.

Give me a book.

Realise the difficulties the sentence pattern presents for your pupils. Comparative analysis of the grammar item in English and in mother tongue may be helpful. Think of the shortest and simplest way for presentation.

2. Practical approach to the assimilation of grammar. It means that pupils learn those grammar items which they need for immediate use either in oral or written language. E.g. Pupils need the Possessive Case for aural comprehension and speaking about things or objects which belong to different people. E.g. Ann’s book, the boys’ room, etc. In the senior stage (8-9-10) pupils need the sequences of Tenses and so on.

The learner masters grammar through performing various exercises in using a given grammar item.

Rule for the teacher: Teach pupils correct grammar usage and not grammar knowledge.

3. Structural approach. It means that grammar items are introduced and drilled in structures or sentence patterns. It has been proved and accepted by the majority of teachers and methodologists that whenever the aim is to teach pupils the command of the language, and speaking in particular the structural approach meets the requirements.

Rule for the teacher: Furnish pupils with words to change the lexical (semantic) meaning of the sentence pattern so that pupils will be able to use it in different situations. Remember that pupils should assimilate the grammar mechanism involved in the sentence pattern and not the sentence itself.

4. Situational approach. Pupils learn a grammar item used in situations. E.g. The Possessive Case may be effectively introduced in classroom situations. The teacher takes or simply teaches various things and says: This is Ann’s pen. That is Nick’s book and so on. Complex Object. The teacher says: Pete, I want you to give me your book, and etc. Rule for the teacher: Select the situations for the particular grammar item you are going to present. Look through the textbook and other teaching materials and find those situations, which can ensure comprehension and provide the usage of the item.

5. Different approaches to the teaching of active grammar (grammar for conversation) and passive grammar (grammar for reading). Grammar items pupils need for conversation are taught by the oral approach, i.e. pupils and them, perform various oral exercises, finally see them printed , and write sentences using them.

Grammar items necessary for reading are taught through reading. (E.g. The Past Continuous). At present they do not need this tense form for conversation. They need it for comprehension of the text only.

Rule for the teacher: If the grammar item you are going to present belongs to those pupils need for conversation, select the oral approach method for teaching. If pupils need the grammar item for reading, start with reading and writing sentences in which the grammar item occurs.

In short new grammar it, may be introduced in two ways: a) inductive; b) deductive. Inductive way means to observe grammar facts (phenomenon) in the texts, to select them in the speech situations and generalise them. Deductive means giving some rules or presenting in the form of speech patterns, then pass over to examples, exercises and so on. If necessary both ways are possible to use at one lesson. Choosing this or that way of presentation of a grammar item mostly depends on:

a) the character of the grammar item to be presented;

b) the absence or presence of the grammar material in the mother tongue of the pupils;

c) the degree of the pupils’ linguistic experience.

For example, The Past Continuous may be easily presented and introduced on the base of Present Continuous (inductive way). Translation method will do well if grammar item has its coincidence in the mother tongue.

5. Types of Exercises for Assimilation of Grammar.

The following types of exercises may be suggested:

1. Precognitive exercises - which are the easiest type of exercises for pupils to perform. They observe the grammar, in structures (sentence patterns) when hearing or reading.

E.g. - Listen to the sentences and raise your hands whenever you hear the verbs in the Past Indefinite.

E.g. - Read the sentences in which (1) the action was not completed (she was reading a book), (2) the action was completed (she had read the book).

E.g. - Read the sentences and choose the correct form of the verb: I (go, went) to the library last Monday. Recognition exercises are indispensable as pupils retain the grammar material through auditory and visual perception. Auditory and visual memory is at work.

2. Drill exercises. The learners cannot assimilate the material if they only hear and see it. They must reproduce it both in outer and inner speech. The more often they say it the better they assimilate the material. Drill exercises are groups into:

a) Repetitive drill. Pupils pronounce the sentence patterns r dialogues after the teacher, or speaker in imitation of the teacher, both individually and in unison. E.g. They are dancing in the park.

b) Substitution. Pupils substitute the words or phrases in a sentence pattern. E.g. The children are dancing in the park. (garden, street, yard, hall, etc.)

After this the verb is substituted. (playing and so on). The teacher may use some pictures.

3. Completion. Pupils complete the sentences the teacher utters looking at the pictures he shows. E.g. Teacher: Look at the picture. Mike is ...... . 4. Creative exercises (speech exercises). It requires creative work on the part of the learners.

A) Making statements either on the picture the teacher shows, or on objects. E.g. The teacher hangs up a picture and asks his pupils to say or write three or five statements in Present Continuous.

B) Asking questions with a given grammar item.

C) Speaking about the situation offered by the teacher.

E.g. Pupil 1: Go to the door, Mike.

Pupil 2: Mike is going to the door.

Other tense forms may also be used.

D) Dramatising.

E) Translating into English and etc.

All the exercises mentioned above are designed:

(1) to develop pupils’ skills in recognising grammar forms while auditing and reading English texts;

(2) to assimilate correct sentence patterns in the pupils’ memory which they can reproduce whenever they need these patterns for speaking or writing;

(3) to help the pupils to produce sentences of their own using grammar items necessary for speaking about a situation or a topic offered, or writing an essay on the text heard or an annotation on the text read.

5. Grammar tests. Tests allow the teacher to evaluate pupils’ achievement in grammar, that is hoe each of them has masters forms, meaning and usage.


  1. G.V. Rogova. «Method of Teaching English». Moscow - 1983.

  2. Гез А.И. и др. «Методика обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе». Москва, Высшая школа - 1982.

  3. Старков А.П. «Обучение английскому языку в средней школе». Москва - 1978. 4. Ильин М.С. «Основы теории упражнений по иностранному языку». Москва - 1975.

Lecture 11

Theme: Teaching Vocabulary of the English Language

Problems for discussion:

1. The Importance of Teaching Vocabulary, its role and Syllabus Requirement.

2. Difficulties Pupils Experience in assimilating Vocabulary.

3. Psychological and Linguistic peculiarities of the English Vocabulary.

4. How to Teach Vocabulary in School.

1. The Importance of Teaching Vocabulary , its role (place) and syllabus Requirements.

Teaching Vocabulary is the base of language learning. To know a language means to master its structure and words. Thus, vocabulary in one of the aspects of the language to be taught in schools. Vocabulary is the total of words and word combinations to e taught and to be learnt.

The problem is what words and idioms pupils should retain. It is impossible to assimilate language skills (speaking, reading, writing, listening) without the knowledge of Vocabulary. Speech is impossible without vocabulary items. Listening comprehension in English is only possible when a certain amount of vocabulary is learnt. The meaning of speech remains abstract, no information obtained if the pupils don not know vocabulary. English vocabulary has specific peculiarities and difficulties in reading. While reading pupils perceive by visual signals. That is why in order to get information and to understand he should recognise, to words, be able to read them and to understand their meaning.

Much attention should be drawn to the lexical point f writing (written speech). The pupil must acquire writing skills, pronunciation and reading skills of the vocabulary in order o give a proper and meaningful information by writing.

Above mentioned points say that Vocabulary (lexics) is necessary for all language skills.

The number of words pupils should acquire in schools de[ends wholly on the syllabus requirements. The following lexical vocabulary (minimum) items are accepted for each form in secondary in the 5th form - 300, in the 6th form - 200, in the 7th form - 200, in the 8th form - 200, in the 9th form - 100, in the 10th form - 100, in the 11th form - 100 vocabulary items (1200 words) (1000 words in Uzbek schools). The accordance with the principles of selecting linguistic material, the conditions of teaching and learning a foreign language in school. Scientific principles of selecting vocabulary have been worked out. The words selected should be: (1) frequently used in the language; (2) easily combined (nice room, nice girl, nice weather); (3) unlimited from the point of view of style (oral, written); (4) included in the topics the syllabus sets; (5) valuable from the point of view of word building (use, used, useful, useless, usefully, user, usage).

The first principle, word frequency, is an example of a purely linguistic approach to word selection. Modern tendency is to apply this principle depending on the language activities to be developed. For developing reading skills pupils need «reading vocabulary» and etc.

The words selected may be grouped under the following two classes (Mwest):

1. Words that we talk with or form (structural) words which make up the form (structure) of the language.

2. Words that we talk about or content words.

In teaching vocabulary for practical needs both structural words and content words are of great importance. The is why they are included in the vocabulary minimum.

It is generally known that school leavers’ vocabulary is poor. They have trouble with hearing, listening, reading and writing. One of the reasons is poor teaching of vocabulary.

The teacher should bear in mind that a word is considered to be learned when:

(1) it is spontaneously recognised while auding and reading;

(2) it is correctly used in speech, i.e. the right word in the right place.

2. Difficulties Pupils Experience in assimilating Vocabulary

Learning the words of a foreign language is not an easy business every word has its form, meaning and usage and each of these aspects of the word may have its difficulties indeed, some words are difficult form (daughter, busy, bury, woman, women) and easy in usage; other words are easy in form (enter, get, happen) and difficult in usage consequently, words may be classified according to the difficulties pupils find in assimilation. In methodology some attempts have been made to approach the problem.

The analysis of the words within the foreign language allows us to distinguish the following groups of words; concentrate abstract and structural Words denoting concrete things (book, street, sky), actions (walk, dance, read), and qualities (long, big, good) are easier to learn than words denoting abstract notions (words, home, believe promise, honest). Structural words are the most difficult for Kazakhstan-speaking pupils.

In teaching pupils a foreign language the teacher should bear this in mind when preparing for the vocabulary work during the lesson.

3. Psychological and Linguistic Peculiarities of the English Vocabulary

From the view point of psychology words (vocabulary) are the complicated phenomenon which stimulate perceiving and understanding the speech.

As a stimulator there are two aspects of the word: on the one hand we hear, listen to the words and see it in written form, and a person gives an answer with the help of words on the other hand.

As a persons answer we can see one more aspect (the third) of the word-action aspect. The pronunciations and writing (spelling) of the words are realised by actions (by brain activities). Thus, the assimilation of words by a pupil depends on the activity of the higher nervous system (correlation of seeing, listening, hearing reflexes in the brain). So the psychological structure an meaning of a word consists of listening, seeing, (visual) pronunciation and writing activities. In teaching pupils English vocabulary the teacher-methodologist should bear the psychological aspects in mind. Words are elements of the language used in the act of communication. They are single units, and as such cannot provide the act of communication by themselves they can provide it only when they are combined in a certain way. In teaching pupils vocabulary both the ear and the organs of speech should take an active part in the assimilation of words, pupils should have sample practise in hearing words and pronouncing them not only as isolated units but in various sentences in which they occur.

Rule 1 for the teacher: While teaching pupils vocabulary introduce words in sentence patterns in different situations of intercourse. Present the words in keeping with the structures to be taught.

Rule 2 for the teacher: Present the word as an element, i.e., in a sentence pattern first. Then fix it in the pupils memory through different exercises in sentence patterns and phrase patterns. Speech is taken in by ear and reproduced by the organs of speech.

Rule 3 for the teacher: While introducing a word pronounce it yourself in a context, ask pupils to pronounce it both individually and in unison in a context, too.

Linguistic peculiarities of the English vocabulary can be grouped into 3 classes.

1. Specific properties of the English vocabulary itself.

2. Peculiarities of the English Vocabulary in Comparison with the pupils’ mother tongue vocabulary.

3. Differences of the English Vocabulary in Comparison with the Russian and the pupils’ mother tongue vocabulary.

1. The first group includes the following:

(1) silent letters in several words. E.g. Whom, take, light, autumn;

(2) polysemy of words;

(3) the presence of conversion. E.g. to work - work;

(4) the exceptions from the reading rules of some letters. E.g. put [p t], gone [ n], come [ k m];

(5) difficult pronunciation of some letter combinations in words: thin, this, mathematics;

(6) the presence of the 4 forms of English verbs: go - went - gone - going.


(1) Non-coincidence of the word meaning in both languages, the meaning is narrow in one language but broad in the other one. E.g. Afternoon - from 12 till 18 o’clock. The meaning by one word in Kazakhstan.

(2) To word meaning in the mother tongue coincides in some extent in English language: Kazakhstan «тахиа» - a skullcap, «тон» - a robe. The meaning is close in some extent, because there are no such clothes in England.

(3) Two words coincide to one word in mother tongue: кол - arm, hand.

(4) Words which have no counterparts in Kazakhstan: a lunch, show.

(5) The pronunciation of the English word coincides to the pronunciation of the Kazakhstan word but with different meaning. E.g. a magazine.


(1) This group includes the international words which exist in three languages: E.g. finish, start, football, volley-ball.

(2) In English and in Russian the word meaning coincides but in K-k - not.
(3) There are a set of prepositions in English and Russian, but there are no prepositions Kazakhstan. Instead there are case inflexions and auxiliary words.

In teaching pupils vocabulary the teacher should use the pupils’ mother tongue and Russian language. The pupils’ mother tongue experience may cause positive and negative influence when learning the pronunciation, spelling (writing), meaning of the English vocabulary. The positive influence makes the process of learning easy. The negative influence causes the so-called «interference». It makes the process of learning difficult, e.g. for positive influence.

Word order: Бұл кітап - This is a book.

Word formation: work - worker (жұмыс - жұмысшы); dining - room (асхана); bedroom (ұйықтайтын бөлме).

Negative influence of the mother tongue factors:

The absence of conversion: an eye - to eye (көз - көру).

The word order in a sentence: Менің ағам мектепте істейді.

My brother at school works. Instead of My brother works at school.

While reading in English conversion may cause interference.

Ex. His works are very interesting. He works very well.

In each sentence the word «works» is understood as «істеу». Silent letters in the words also make it trouble some. Ex. Take, which, hour. Any word in the language has very complicated linguistic relation with other words in pronunciation, meaning, spelling and usage.

Rule 4 for the teacher: In teaching words it is necessary to establish a memory bond between a new word and those already covered.

For instance: see - sea; two - too; one - won (in pronunciation); answer - reply; caught - taught; night - right (in spelling); and etc.

Hence there are two stages in teaching vocabulary: presentation or explanation, retention or consolidation which are based on certain psycho-linguistic factors.

4. How to Teach Vocabulary in School.

Teaching and learning words are carried on through methods we are familiar with; the teacher organises learning, i.e. in the acquisition of information about a new word, its form, meaning and usage; in drill and transformation to form lexical habits; in making use of the lexical in hearing, speaking and reading, or in language skills.

Various techniques are used to attain the goal - to fix the words in pupils’ memory ready to be used whenever they need them.

Presentation of new words. Since every word has its form, meaning, and usage to present a word means to introduce to pupils its forms and to explain its meaning, and usage. The techniques of teaching pupils the pronunciation and spelling of a word are as follows:

(1) pure or conscious imitation;

(2) analogy;

(3) transcription;

(4) rules of reading since a word consists of sounds it heard or spoken and letters it read or written the teacher shows the pupils how to pronounce, to read, and write it.

There are two ways of conveying the meaning of words: direct way and translation. The direct way of presenting the words of a foreign language bring the learner into direct contact with them, the mother tongue does not come in between.

The direct way of conveying the meaning of foreign words s usually used when the words denote things, objects, their qualities, sometimes gestures and movements, which can be shown to and seen by pupils, for example: a book, a table, red, big, take, stand up, etc. The teacher should connect the English word he presents with the object, the notion it denotes directly, without the use of pupils mother tongue.

The teacher uses various techniques for the purpose. It is possible to group them into: (1) visual, and (2) verbal. The first group involves the use of visual aids (object, pictures, situations, movements and gestures).

The second group of techniques involves the utilisation of verbal means for conveying the meaning of unfamiliar words. These may be context, synonyms, antonyms, definitions, word-building elements, etc.

Example: the use of definition. The new word is blind. A blind person is one who cannot see.

Word-building for conveying the meaning of words. Teacher: You know the words: worker, teacher... now guess the meaning of the word writer.

Write - writer; teacher - teach.

The teacher may also use synonyms to convey the meaning of a new word. For example, the word town may be presented through the familiar word city; receive -get; reply - answer, etc.

Teacher: You know the word city. Kiev is a city, but Nukus us not city. It is a town.

The use of the direct way, however, is restricted. Whenever the teacher is to present words denoting abstract notions he must resort the mother tongue, i.e. to translation.

The translation may be applied in its two variants:

1. Common (proper) translation. Ex. to sleep - спать; flower - цветок.

2. Translation-interpretation. Ex. to go - ехать, идти, лететь (движение от говорящего), education - воспитание, образование.

The translation is effected for presenting new words: it is economical from the point of view of tome it ensures the exact comprehension of the meaning of the words presented. As far as the stages of instruction are concerned, the ways of conveying the meaning of unfamiliar words should be used as follows:

- verbal presentation prevails in junior forms;

- verbal means prevails in intermediate and senior forms;

- translation in all the forms, especially in senior forms.

From psychology it is known that the process of perception is a complicated one; it includes various sensations and at the same time, is closely connected with thinking and speech, with pupils’ attention, their will, memory and emotions. The more active the pupils are during the explanation of new words the better the results that can be achieved.

The choice of ways and techniques is a very important factor as it influences pupils’ assimilation of words.

The choice of the way for conveying the meaning of a word depends on the following factors:

1. Psychological factors:

(1) pupils’ age: the younger the pupils are the better is the chance for the use of the direct way;

(2) pupils’ intelligence: the brighter the child the more direct the way.

2. Pedagogical factors:

(1) the stage of teaching (junior, intermediate, senior)

(2) the size of the class; in overcrowded classes the translation is preferable because it is economical from the standpoint of time required for presentation, so more time is left for pupils to do exercises in using the word.

(3) the time allotted to learning the new words; when the teacher is pressed for time he turns to the translation;

(4) the qualifications of the teacher: the use of the direct way requires much still on the part of the teacher.

The direct way is usually a success provided the teacher can skilfully apply audio-visual aids and verbal means.

3. Linguistic factors

(1) abstract or concrete notions: for conveying the meaning of abstract notions the translation is preferable;

(2) extent (range) of meaning in comparison with that of the Kazakhstan language: in cases where range of meaning of a word does not coincide in the mother tongue and in the target language the translation interpretation should be used (e.g. education).

The assimilation is gained through performing various exercises which allow the pupils to acquire lexical habits.

Retention of Word

To attain the desired and pupils must first of all perform various exercises to fix the words in their memory.

Two groups of exercises may be recommended for vocabulary assimilation.

Group 1. Exercises designed for developing pupils’ skills in choosing the proper word.

Group 2. Exercises designed to form pupils’ skills in using the word in sentences.

Group 1 may include:

1) Exercises in finding the nexessary words among those suggested (see page 145);

2) Exercises in finding the necessary words among those stored up in the pupils’ memory (9 types are mentioned in the book by G.V.Rogova).

Group 2 may include:

1) Exercises in inserting the necessary words in word combinations, phrases, sentences; the words and sentences being suggested. For example:





blue sky





2) Exercises in using word comvinations, phrasesm sentences stored up in pupils’ memory in connection with situations given (see pages 146147).

3) Exercises which help pupils to acquire skills in using vocabulary in speech which may be stimulated by: a) visual materials; b) verbal means; c) audio-visual materials.

There are three problems the teacher is to deal with in vocabulary retention: 1) the number of exercises to be sued;

2) the type of exrcises to be used;

3) the sequence or the order of complexity in which the selected exercises should be done.

In modern teaching materials now in use the words pupils are to learn pass through the following stages:

1. Pupils listen t the words in sentences arranged in a structural group.

2. They learn the meaning of the words in variuos contexts.

3. Pupils learn the forms of words.

4. They perform various exercises with the words in phrases and structres to assimilate the usage of the words.

5. Pupils use the words in speaking in various situations.

Достарыңызбен бөлісу:
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