A branch of study. Methods (Методика) as a branch of study is the science of ways or manners (methods) of teaching. Methods of foreign language teaching is the science of methods teaching foreign languages


A Short History of foreign language teaching in Kazakhstan

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A Short History of foreign language teaching in Kazakhstan

Besides the mother tongue it was traditional and customary to know foreign languages, the languages of other nations. As it was done the part of the world from early tones. There was a necessity of knowledge of foreign language in all the periods of the development of the society. The main principle of the outstanding people (thinkers) was multilingual knowledge. People inhabiting in Kazakhstan knew each other's language. It was traditional to know neighbors' tongue. Besides it's known that leaning the language of for countries as well. Russian, Uzbek were popular among the people. Most people learned European languages and German. In the 70th of past century some European languages has been taught.

Methods of foreign language teaching in the republic have been only undergone in the middle of the 50th. But there were no textbook or manuals, original investigation. Teaching foreign languages was based on the methods of teaching foreign languages in Russian Schools. Real investigation, activity started after the appearance of I, V. Rakhmanov’s and A.A. Mirolyibov’s works. Under these conditions the history of foreign language teaching in the republic can be -divided into three stages: 1st stase - till 1924; 2nd stage- 1924-1960 3rd stage - starts from 1961 Before 1961 there weren't published textbooks, manuals or gone other teaching materials for Uzbek schools or higher educational establishments. Great changes have taken place after the decree on improving of foreign language teaching was issued. It is necessary to note that very fruitful were the years between 70"1 and 80th for the scientific research work in foreign languages teaching methods in Uzbekistan.
Literature
1. G.V.Rogova. Methods of Teaching English. Moscow, 1983.

2. Peter Hubbard and others. A Training Course for TEFL. Oxford University Press, 1987.



Lecture 8

Theme: Methods of Investigation of Foreign Languages Teaching Methods
Problems

1.Main (basic) methods of investigation

2. Subsidiary methods

3. Summary

Methods of Investigation of the Foreign Language Teaching Methods Methods of foreign language teaching like any other sciences, has definite ways (methods) of investigating the problems which may arise. Methods of foreign language teaching methods are mainly grouped into two types:

1. Main (basic) methods of investigation. They are as follows: a) a critical study of the ways foreign languages were taught in our country and abroad.

a) A thorough study and summing up of the experience of the best foreign language teachers in different types of schools

b) Scientific research observation

c) Teaching as an experiment

d) Test teaching

e) Experimenting with the aim of confirming or refuting the working hypothesis that may arise during investigation.

2. Subsidiary method

a) Having questionnaire

b) Testing o) The method of talking

d) Statistical method

e) The method of chronometering

Experimenting becomes more and more popular with methodologists. In experimenting methodologists have to deal with different data, that is way in arranging research work they use mathematics, statistics and probability theory to interred experimental results.



  1. Research in Methods usually begins with observation of what is going on in the classroom.

For instance:

- how a teacher and pupils react to each other (the division of Labor in the classroom);

- how pupils read, understand the teacher, speak or write;

- what mistakes pupils make in speaking, reading or writing;

- what difficulties they encounter while reading, hearing, speaking or writing;

b) Talks with teachers and pupils with the purpose of finding out something are also used in research in Methods. For instance, a research worker wants to know (find out):

- how much time the pupil works at his English in the laboratory (at home)

• In the amount of material for home reading and pupils' treatment of It;

• In the arrangement of pupils' work while developing some language skill Experiment or specially arranged teaching with the purpose of solving some methodological problem. It is used for testing some hypothesis.

The experiment is usually connected with the introduction of some new technignes, material organization of pupils for learning. Shortly with some innovation. To experiment with a new way of teaching one needs experimental groups and control groups. The comparison of results shows the difference in pupils' learning. The experiment requires the following procedure:

• pre-test in all the groups both control and those taken for experimenting;

• experimental class sessions (lessons);

• post-test The difference in results testifies the effectiveness of teaching. For example, the following experiment was carried on. The hypothesis was: the wording of the task is essential for forming speaking skills. In learning grammar pupils often perform mechanical exercises to acquire habits in using this particular grammar item. To such exercises belongs this one : «Make the following sentences negative», or «Make the following sentences interrogative*. In the experiment the assignments were given in the following wording: «Disagree with the speaker», «Ask if it is so». The only variable was the wording of the assignment. This trifle change resulted in an improvement in students' speaking reaching 30%. Here is meant correctness and tempo of speaking. The experiment allowed the experimenter to determine differences in pupils' achievement. e) Questionnaires are extensively used in Methods. The research worker turns to the questionnaire whenever he needs answers to the questions he faces. For example, he wants to know how much time teachers spend on checking pupils' homework (or how they check it).

He distributes a questionnaire among teachers, they answers the questions. The analysis of their answers allows the experimenter to get the data. In recent years there has been a great increase of interest in Methods since foreign language teaching has many attractions as an area for research. A great deaf of useful research work has been carried out. New ideas and new data produced as the result of research are usually developed into new teaching materials and teaching techniques. It should be said that we need research activities of the following types: descriptive research which deals with "what to teach", experimental and instrumental research dealing with "how to teach". More research is now needed which compares different combination of devices, various teaching aids, etc.


Literature

I. G.V.Rogova. Methods of Teaching English. Moscow, 19832.

II. Peter Hubbard and others. A Training Course for TEFL. Oxford University Press, 1987.


Lecture 9

Theme: The Teaching of Pronunciation

Problems for Discussion

1. General Remarks

2. The Importance of Teaching Pronunciation

3. The Content of Teaching Pronunciation

4. The difficulties in English Pronunciation experienced by Kazakhstanspeaking pupils

5. How To Teach Pronunciation
The basis of all language skills is the sound structure. It is in these sound sequences that the ideas are contained. Listening is the first experience; the attempt to understand accompanies it. The acquisition of good pronunciation depends to a great extent on the learner’s ability of listening with care and discrimination. The phonetic system of English which consists of the following components: speech sounds, the syllabic structure of words, word stress, and intonation (prosody). These four components constitute what is called pronunciation. So the task is not only to teach correct pronunciation of sounds or sound sequences but also to teach pupils to use the stress in the right place, syllable division and intonation components, combined together. One of the tasks of language teaching consists in developing ways to help learner “and” the unfamiliar sounds. The hearing of a given word calls forth the acoustic image of that from which a pronunciation is obtained. Therefore teaching pronunciation is of great importance in the developing of pupils hearing and speaking habits and skills.

But just as a pupil reaches school level with an active command of grammar structures and vocabulary so he should arrive with an active command of grammar structures and vocabulary so he should arrive with an active command of pronunciation should be an integral part of an English teaching programme from the early stages, just as the teaching of structures and vocabulary.

Teaching pronunciation is of no less importance in the developing of reading and writing habits and skills, since writing (or what is written) is a graphic representation of sound sequences. In reading visual images become acoustic images. These are combined with kinaesthetic images, resulting in inner speech. Wrong pronunciation often leads to misunderstanding. E.g., when a speaker or a reader replaces one phoneme with another he unintentionally uses quite a different word, in this way altering. The sense of what he wanted to say. E.g. White instead of wide; it instead of eat; pot instead of port, etc.

Every teacher must understand how important the teaching of correct pronunciation is.

Phonetics is not taught as a special subject at school; the pronunciation skills for pupils are formed (developed) in the process of speaking, reading and grammar lessons simultaneously of course, it is impossible to teach English pronunciation to schoolchildren as native speakers do. So the level of approximation is required. It means very close type of pronunciation to the literary standard English pronunciation. The following pronunciation requirements are put forward to the schoolchildren: the acquisition of the function of phonemes differentiating the meaning of words; the acquisition of fast and fluent reading habits; the listener should understand the speaker perfectly. One more requirement lies in the mastering of the automatic pronunciation skills; the normal tempo of speech must be 130-150 words per minute.

The schoolchildren must not only acquire the knowledge of word meaning differentiating function of phonemes but also they should master the usage of intonation patterns nuclear tones, as well as the position matters the use of stress in a right place and rhythmic segmentation of phrases and sentences.

The language material of phonetic minimum is selected according 2 main principles. The first principle is the selection of the material needed for communication. According to this principle all the sounds differentiating word meaning and into phonemes are included into the teaching minimum. That’s to say phoneme variants, positional and combinatory variants, expressive intonation patterns are not included. Low Fall and Low Rise are the minimum requirements only.

The second principle is the stylistic one. Pupils should study English Uterary constitutes Received Pronunciation. This is the language of radio, TV, theatres, universities and schools. In our schools we teach pupils literary pronunciation which is characterised by:

a) clear stress in all rhythmic groups;

b) clear pronunciation of the sounds;

c) typical abbreviations in auxiliary words; it’s, won’t, doesn’t, can’t, shouldn’t, etc.

Proceeding from the aims and objectives pupils must assimilate:

1. The sounds of the English language its vowels and consonants. They should be able in different phonetic contexts.

2. Some peculiarities of English Language in comparison with those of the Kazakhstan language, such as, English vowels differ in quality and length of vowels is of no importance; the devoicing of the voiced sounds at the word final position leads to the change of word meaning, etc.

3. Stress in a word and a sentence, and melody (fall and rise). Pupils must be able to divide a sentence into groups and intone it properly.

Only when pronunciation is correct, when all main phonic rules are strictly followed, can one understand what one bears and clearly express one’s thoughts in English.

The teacher, therefore, faces the following problems in teaching pupils English pronunciation:

1. the problem of discrimination, i.e., the hearing the differences between phonemes which are not distinguished, or used in the Kazakhstan language and between falling, rising and level tones;

2. the problem of articulation, i.e., learning to make motor movements adequate to proper production of English sounds.

3. the problem of integration, i.e., learning to make right stresses, pauses and use appropriate patterns;

4. the problem of integration, i.e., learning to assemble the phonemes of a connected discourse (talk) with the proper allophonic variations (member of a phoneme) in the moths, hard times;

5. the problem of automaticy, i.e., making correct production so habitual that it does not need to be attended to in the process of speaking.

Consequently, discrimination, articulation, intonation, integration, automaticy are the items that should constitute the content of the teaching of production, i.e., pupils should be taught to discriminate or to distinguish English sounds form mother tongue sounds, long sounds from sounds, long sounds from short ones; falling tone from rising tone; to articulate English sounds correctly, to use appropriate tone patterns; to integrate of to combine sounds into a whole and, finally, they should be taught to use all these while hearing and speaking the English language of course absolute correctness in impossible. We can not expect more than approximate correctness, the correctness that ensures communication between people speaking the same language.

Selected phonetic minimum is usually taught during the 1st stage of teaching, i.e., 5-6 forms. This periods characterised with the formation of listening, hearing and pronunciation skills of the children if these formulated automatic skills are not supported in the next stages the process of deautomaticy of the skills will take place.

Any language has its specific phonic system. This true for English as well. The sounds of English are not the same as the sounds of Kazakhstan, though there are, of course, some sounds which occur both in English and in Kazakhstan. There are many difficult sounds in English for Kazakhstan learners, [ð, θ, r, tʃ, ɜ:, æ] for example. To Kazakhstan-speaking pupils the combination of sounds [ θs ], [ ðz ] which occurs in English at the end of a word (months, clothes) is strange and they find great difficulty in pronouncing a word with this sound combination. The sounds of English may be arranges in three groups: vowels, diphthongs and consonants. Vowels may be short and long. But Kazakh vowels don’t fall under such grouping. Some authorities D.Janes, consider the state of tension of tongue to be unimportant factor in the pronunciation of various vowel from lax vowels. Long sounds are fully long only when final - far, sea, saw, two, fur; Kazakh - speaking pupils because they do not appear in their native language: [ εæ, ou ]. English consonant also presents some trouble to Kazakh pupils, first because there are sounds which are quite strange to pupils, for example, [ ð ], [ θ ]. In final portion voiceless consonants have strong articulation (white), voiced consonants - weak articulation (wide).

Therefore in teaching pupils how to pronounce consonants in final position the of teacher should emphasise the strength the of articulation and tenacity of voiceless consonants and weakness of voiced consonants. The sound is hardly pronounced and heard. The pronunciation of words is not only a matter of sounds, but also of stress or accent. Some words have the hearer stress on the first part of the word: sorry, evening, morning, answer, and other words have the hearer stress on the second part: begin, mistake, result. Stress is very important to the assimilation of English pronunciation. Foreigners often find it difficult to understand an Englishman’s speech and ask him to speak more slowly, because in quick speech the accented syllables are so strong that they almost down the others. The pronunciation of sentence patterns includes also variations of musical tones: rise and fall. English tone patterns differ from those of Kazakhstan, that is why pupils find it difficult.

Sometimes Kazakh people speaking English use wrong intonation because of the interference of the mother tongue. In teaching English pronunciation the teacher should bear in mind that the difficulties he will meet with - and they occur throughout the course - are sounds, stress, and musical tones should know. What they are and how to teach pupils to overcome these difficulties. 1) The phonic phenomena which do not require any explanation or special demonstration since there are similar phenomena in the mother tongue of the pupils. For example, sounds [b, k, m, s], a falling tone at the end of affirmative sentences. 2) The phonic phenomena which require only corrections, a little different in languages. E.g., English sounds [t, d, n, l]differ in pronunciation in comparison with corresponding Kazakhstan sounds. The teacher shows the pupils how to pronounce. 3) The phonic phenomena which require explanation of special demonstration on the part of the teacher since they are quite strange for Karalaplak-speaking pupils. E.g. English [ ], the rising tone in the interrogative sentence. Pupils should acquire new habits, there is nothing to transfer from the mother tongue.

How to Teach Pronunciation One of the mains principled of teaching pronunciation is the comparison of the English phonic phenomena with those of other tongue.

Having acquired great skills of mother tongue pronunciation schoolchildren encounter great difficulties as the initial stage of learning English pronunciation on the one hand. The interference may occur. On the other hand mother tongue habits may facilitate the process of mastering pronunciation. Pupils assimilate English pronunciation through:

1) the acquisition of new sounds, stress, tone-patterns; 2) drill in recognition and reproduction new material to acquire pronunciation habits, and 3) making use of the pronunciation habits in language skills (hearing, speaking, reading and writing). In teaching pronunciation there are at least two methodological problems the teacher faces:

1) to determine the cases, where simple imitation can or must be used;

2) to decide on types of exercises and the techniques of using the,. Pupils must because conscious of the differences between English sounds and those of the native language. This is possible provided the foreign sound is contrasted with the native phoneme which is substituted for it, e.g

Each sound is also contrasted with the foreign phonemes which come close to it and with which it is often confused.

The contrast is brought out through such minimal pairs as: it-eat, spot-sport, wide-white, cat-cart, full-fool, boat-bought.

The experience of the sound contrast is reinforces audio-visually:

1) by showing the objects which the contrasting words represent. E.g. ship-sheep. The teacher makes quick simple drawing of a ship and a sheep on the blackboard or shows pictures of these objects.

2) by showing actions. E.g. He is riding - He is writing. Situational pictures may be helpful if the teacher can not make a sketch on the blackboard.

3) by using sound symbols [ð, θ, r, tʃ, ɜ:, æ]. To teach pupils how to pronounce a new language correctly in a conscious way means to ensure that the pupils learns to put his organs of speech into definite positions required for the production of the speeds sounds of this language.

A person learning a foreign language unconsciously continues to use his muscles in the old ways and substitutes the phenomena the intonation of his native tongue, e.g. zis instead of this. In learning pronunciation great use should also be made of the method «imitation». Pupils learn to pronounce - new language by imitating the pronunciation of the teacher. The teacher is often at a loss, how to show his pupils the pronunciation of this or that vowel because he can not show them the position of the organs of speech while producing the sound. E.g. «back», «front», «the soft palate». It is easier for them to pronounce a sound, a word, or a sentence in imitation of the teacher that to assimilate «What is what» in the mouth cavity. Therefore pupils merely imitate the teacher. As to intonation it should be taught mainly through imitation, though some explanations and gestures in particular are helpful (hand moving): symbols [ð, θ, r, tʃ, ɜ:, æ]. Consequently, teaching pronunciation in school must be carried out through conscious approach to the problem and imitation of the teacher and speakers when tape-recordings and records are used.

Pupils pronounce first in unison, then individually, then in unison again until the teacher sees that they can pronounce the sound, the word with the sound, and the whole sentence correctly. Individually - bright pupils, then average and finally slow pupils to pronounce. Exercises used for developing pronunciation habits may be of two groups: recognition exercises and reproduction exercises. Recognition exercises are designed for developing pupils ability to discriminate sounds and pupils sequences. The ability to and is developed if the teacher uses the aural-oral method or oral approach in teaching the language (by ear). Pupils to be able to acquire the phonic aspect the language. It can be done:

a) by listening to the teacher pronouncing a sound, a sound combination and sensible sound sequence;

b) listening to the speaker from a tape-recording. The following technique may be recommended: the teacher pronounces his pupils to recognize the new sound.

E.g.: the new sound is [ɛ]. The teacher pronounces the words: a desk, a nest, a pen, a pan, a bed, bad. When a pupil hears the new sound he raises his hand, the teacher sees if the pupil can recognize the new sound.

The teacher pronounces the sentence: They left for Astana yesterday and -asks his pupils to say which words are stressed. If they say left, Astana, yesterday they hear the stressed words.

The teacher pronounces English phrases with a rising or falling tone and asks pupils to raise their hands when they hear a falling tone, e.g. on the table - on the table. If the pupils raise their hands in the right place then it shows that they can hear fall and rise in the voice, therefore, they can recognize the melody.

Reproduction exercises are designed for developing pupils’ pronunciation habits, i.e. their a ability to articulate English sounds correctly and to combine sound into words, phrases and sentences easily, enough to be able to speak English and to read aloud in this language. A few minutes at each lesson must be developed to drilling the sounds which are most difficult for Kazakh - speaking pupils.

The same should be done with the regular and irregular verbs in the Past Indefinite. When pupils study this tense, e.g. - ed [t, d, id]: buy - bought. The teacher may take poems for pronunciation of English sounds. Proverbs and some useful expressions can be used as material for pronunciation drills.

The material pupils get for reproduction can be presented in two possible ways: (1) through auditory perception only; (2) through auditory perception reinforced by visual perception of a sound, a word, a phrase, a sentence, and a text. Hence pupils’ learning by heart the material included in a phonetic drill (rhymes, proverbs, poems, songs, dialogues) is not the main aim. The main aim, is pupils’ correct pronunciation with regard to sounds, stress, rhythm and melody.

It is impossible to underestimate the role that can be played by sound film loops, records, tape playback devices, video and computer in teaching pronunciation. Some authors (A.P. Starkov, R.R. Dixon) recommend the «articulation exercises» that is the so-called «gymnastics of the tongue and lips». They are very helpful. Pronunciation is a skill that should be developed and perfected throughout the whole course of learning the language that is why the teacher should use pronunciation drill during the lesson, irrespective of the stage of instruction




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