A branch of study. Methods (Методика) as a branch of study is the science of ways or manners (methods) of teaching. Methods of foreign language teaching is the science of methods teaching foreign languages

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Summary.

Audio-lingual approach is a reaction to the Reading Approach; much is taken from the Direct Method, the rest from behaviorism.

1. New material is presented in dialogue form.

2. There is dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases and over learning (i.e. it is believed that language learning is habit formation).

3. Structures are sequenced and taught one at a time.

4. Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills.

5. There is little or no grammatical explanation: grammar is taught by inductive analogy rather than deductive explanation.

6. Skills are sequenced listen, speak, read and write.

7. Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in context.

8. Teaching points are determined by contrastive analysis.

9. There is much use of tapes. Language labs and visual aids.

10. There is an extended pre-reading period at the beginning of the course.

11. Great importance is attached to pronunciation with special attention being paid to intonation.

12. The cultural background of the target language is stressed.

13. Some use of the mother- tongue by teachers is permitted.

14. Successful responses are immediately reinforced.

15. There is a great effort to prevent student errors.

16. There is a tendency to manipulate language and disregard content.



The following principles:

a) Students should first listen, then speak, and finally write the language. (An extreme forms of this method, students had to listen for many hours before they were allowed to speak).

b) The “Grammar” should be presented in the form of modal patterns or dialogues. Drilling consisted of forming new utterances on the basis of the original pattern. This was called “analogous pattern drilling”. That is the students formed the new utterances by analogy.

c) Drilling should follow the stimulus response reinforcement scheme. Students should always be awarded when they responded correctly, by seeing that they had got the answer right.

d) Students should proceed by very easy steps, starting with simple repetition and going on to simple drills, then more complex drills and so on. Ideally the possibility of a student making an error should be avoided altogether, because positive reinforcement (reward) was considered more effective than negative reinforcement (punishment). This principle was called error prevention.

e) By repeating the stages of stimulus response reinforcement, students would develop correct language habits. Once a habit had been formed, a student could produce examples of the pattern effortlessly and without thinking about how to do so. The student was then regarded as being fluent in that pattern.



MAIN FEATURES (G. V. ROGOVA)

1. The development of audio lingual skill first, i.e. , listening comprehension and speaking, that is why the methods are called audio lingual. The justification of the priority of spoken language in foreign language learning is found in the observation that a language is first of all a system of sounds. Used for social communication: writing is a secondary derivative system people use for the recording of spoken language. Children normally learn spoken language before they written language. It is though that reading and writing might, at least in the beginning interfere with the development of audio lingual skills;

2. Great care in teaching speaking so that the learner could use they spoken forms as accurately as possible, that is, with native like sentence patterns and pronunciation. For this purpose the student should have some adequate modal of speech preferably in the person of a native or near-native speaker of the language, or in the form of a recorded voice of such a speaker. This is now becoming possible because of modern teaching equipment such as radio, television, language labs and teaching machines.

3. The rejection of translation as the name tool of instruction. All the exercises performed by the students are usually within the target language. The use of the student’s native language is minimized. It is admitted to supply meaning to the student, although, even in this case the target language supported by whatever props, pictorial materials or pontomic gestures, in preferred.

4. Teaching grammar through pattern practice. The grammatical exercises is usually take the form of drills in which the student is asked to substitute words for other words, or to make changes in sentences, e. g. , from singular to plural, from past to present, from active to passive, following the model.

5. Extensive use of “real-life” communication situation for stimulating the student’s language activity. This is done to involve the student in the act of communication in the target language, and in this way to arose his interest in language learning and increase his motivation. 6. the development of reading and writing first using the linguistic material characteristic of written language with the aim of getting information ( reading) and sending information (writing).

Critics of the audio lingual method would focus mainly on the fact that much the method consists of mechanical drilling. Practice activities tend to be repetitive and boring. More serious is the dangerous that students might produce analogous pattern without realizing what they are saying.

The features of contemporary methods may be illustrated by Voix et images de France (голос и образ Франции) and Fries American English Series. Voix et images de France is a French course which has been worked out by the Research Center is Saint Cloud in France.

The method is known as the Saint Cloud audio visual method. The situations and speech patterns have been carefully selected.

All these are reproduced by native speakers. Students “receive” the material through audio and visual perception, i.e., they see a picture (or a series of picture) on a screen or in the book and listen to the conversation from a tape-recorder. They assimilate the material by the memorizing the language and the situations in which this material can be used. The work takes the student trough the following stages:

1. Receptive stage: the student listens to the conversation 2-3 times and tries to grasp it;

2. Reproductive stage: the student reproduces the phrases and the sentences said by the speakers. The method is popular with foreigners who come to France.

The course has been created for adult learners. It is an intensive course, i.e., students learn a foreign language for 3-6 months 20-25 hours a week; therefore it can not be utilized in schools.

The structural – situational method.

This method is widely used at the time of writing and a very large number of textbooks are based on it. Best it, also has important links with the audio lingual method especially as far as the way the language to be taught is organized (the “structural” ingredient). New language is presented in the form of modal patterns or dialogues. Much use, too, is maid of repetition and analogous pattern drilling.

However, great care is always taking to present and practice language within a situation. Billows explains the word “situation” in the passage you are about to read. The purpose of the situational ingredient is to ensure a meaningful context for language practice. (Another word for this is “contextualization”). In other words it aims to avoid meaningless and mechanical practice.

There are quite a number of prominent methodologists who have contributed to foreign language teaching and English in particular. In conclusion, it should be said that between the grammar-translation method however modified and direct method in various modification there have been mixed or in between methods. The advocates of the latter method try to avoid the extremes of the former. “Language learning” by Peter Humboldt is an example of such a method.

The chief tendency in the development of Methods abroad may be characterized by a scientific approach to the teaching of foreign languages, extensive use of linguistic science, psychology, psycholinguistics, and experimenting. The progress made in the sphere or phonetics, vocabulary and grammar study has shed fresh light on the content, i.e., on what to teach, what linguistic material should be used for developing audio – lingual skills and written language.

The practical application of some theoretical views of American descriptive structural linguists and psychologists, such as the primary of the spoken over the written language, has – led to the oral approach to foreign language teaching; the treatment of language as a complex of habits and skills, as a form of social behavior, has been realized in teaching a foreign language, i.e., a reaction of the organism as a who to a social environment. The learner should know what a native speaker’s response would be in a certain situation. In this article “Learning English as behavior” M. West gives the following examples of wrong and right responses:



wrong

right

What’s this?

What’s this?

This is a book.

Where is the book?

Where is the book?

It’s on the table.

The book is on the table.

(or on the table.)

Know what they speak but how they speak, or rather how they converse. In a behavioral method of teaching it is necessary to combine a correct and systematic build-up of linguistic elements (structures and carefully selected vocabulary) and a vital and behavioral use of the language. M. West says: “Ideally one needs television or a film so that the pupil may not merely hear how the English language is behaved but see it behaved as well. The behaviorist stimulus-response and reinforcement theory in psychology adopted by foreign language teaching has resulted in repetitive drill of certain patterns of language or in pattern practice; for the purpose language laboratories, programmed instruction, and other innovations have been offered. However this has not brought the result which were promised and expected. The behavioral method has begun to be strongly criticized by psychologists and by the teachers and students themselves. As a consequence of this criticism the cognitive code-learning theory has been proposed. It is considered a more modern and sophisticated version of the grammar-translation method.

The Cognitive Approach is a reaction to the behaviorist features of the Audio-lingual Approach as well.

DISTINGUISHING FEATURES:

1. There is emphasis on communication, or communicative competence (i.e. being able to use the language).

2. Language acquisition is seen as rule (not habit) formation: deductive explanation of grammar is preferred.

3. Pronunciation is de-emphasized, since it is considered futile for most students to try to sound like native speakers.

4. Group work and individualized instruction are encouraged.

5. There is renewed interest in vocabulary, especially the expansion of passive vocabulary for reading purpose.

6. The teacher is viewed as a facilitator rather than a figure of absolute authority.

7. The important of comprehension especially listening comprehension - is emphasized.

8. Errors are seen as an inevitable by product of language learning; systematic study, interpretation, and where possible remediation is of concern.

9. The written language skills (reading and writing) and the spoken language skills (listening and speaking) are viewing as being of equal importance, rather than the former secondary the latter primacy.

10. Repletion in and of itself discourage; silence is recognized as useful and often necessary.

11. There is contextualization of all teaching points through the use of audio-visual aids, stories, or other opposite means.

12. The use of the mother tongue and translation are permitted.

13. There is increased interest in the affective domain: the attitude of the teacher and student are seen as important, human sensitively crucial, and the quality of interaction is significant variable.

14. Bilingual-bicultural proficiency is seen as an ideal goal.

COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING.

The late 1960s saw a shift in focus from the audio-lingual method and its prototypes to communicative language teaching, this shift evolved partly as a result of studies carried out by the council of Europe, which began to identify the language needed in a variety of social situations by someone integrating to Common Market countries. The studies sought to evaluate how language itself is used how native speakers of a language express themselves in various situations. The studies had a major impact on the teaching of English as a foreign language. The teachers and curriculum designers began to look at content, at the kind of language needed when greeting or shopping. The emphasis on form, on explicitly learning grammar rules or practicing grammatical patterns, was downplayed in favorer’s needs when using the language in daily interaction. There is no single text or authority on communicative language teaching. It’s make communication the goal of language teaching. Several models have evolved around this principle: the Communicative Approach. Total Physical Response, Natural approach, and competency based approach. These approaches overlap.



COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH. BACKGROUND.

The emphases are placed on using the target language to accomplish a function such as complaining, advising, or asking for information. Attention is also paid to the social context in which this function take place. For instance, different language will be used when complaining to a teacher than when complaining to a close friend. DISTINGUISH FEATURES: all four language skills are taught from the beginning. In speaking skills the aim is to be understood, not to speak like a native. In the sequencing of lessons, priority is given to learner interests and needs. This is in contrast to the grammar translating method which may start with verb tenses and work through from the present simple to the conditionals. In the COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH, if a learner needs to know how to gives advice (“If I were you, I would…”) then this conditional is taught. Interaction between speakers and listeners or readers and writers is at the root of all activities. Learners usually work in pairs or group for role play, information sharing, or problem sharing, or problem solving. Exercises using authentic materials, such as newspapers or recording from the radio, are selected so that learners can practice language in real situations where possible.



SUGGESTOPEDIA. BACKGROUND.

The founder of Suggestopedia, George Lozanov, believes that language learning can be made more efficient if the psychological barriers to learning are lowered; he believes that learners raise these barriers and limit themselves because of a fear of failure. In order to make better use of learners’ capabilities Lozanov has developed a process of “decongestion”, which he has applied to language learning. This process is designed to promote a relaxed frame of mind and to convert learners’ fears into positive energy and enthusiasm for language learning.



DISTINGUISHING FEATURES.

In suggestopedia, great attention is paid to the environment, the seating is as comfortable as possible, the lightning is not harsh, and music plays in the background.

Colorful posters and charts are pinned to the wall. The posters show attractive sights in target language country, the charts contain grammatical information which, in casual readings, the students will absorb without conscious effort. The suggestopedia teacher’s tone is always calm as lightning is not harsh, and music plays in the background. Colorful posters and charts are pinned to the wall. The posters show attractive sights in target language country, the charts contain grammatical information which, in casual readings, the students will absorb without conscious effort. The suggestopedia teacher’s tone is always calm as students are reassured that language learning is easy and fun. At the beginning of the lesson, the teacher briefly presents the vocabulary and grammar. the tent for the end day is given to the student: in the left column the text is in the target language: in the right column it is in the students’ mother tongue. the teacher reads the text, while music plays in the background, the students relax, close their eyes and listen. For homework, the students are asked to read the text just before going to bed and getting up in the morning. The teacher leads the class in role play, question and answer, and other activities based on the text. During these activities, students are invited to use the imaginations and to take on new names and new personalities in the target languages. They are encouraged to visualize themselves as successful people in their new identities, with exciting jobs and a good standing in the community.

Literature.

1. Теоретические основы обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе. Под редакцией Клименко А.Д., Миролюбов А.А. Москва, Педагогика, 1981

2. Методика обучения иностранным языкам средней школы. Составители Гез А.И. и др. Высшая школа, Москва 1982.

3. G.V. Rogova. Methods of Teaching English. Moscow, 1983.

4. Peter Hubbard and others. A Training Course for TEFL. Oxford University Press, 1987.

Lecture 7
Theme: The History of Methods of Foreign Language Teaching in the former Soviet Union.

Problems:

1. Soviet method of Foreign Language Teaching

2. The Comparative Method.

3. A scientific approach

4. A short history of foreign Language Teaching in Uzbekistan


The History of Methods of Foreign Language Teaching in the former Soviet Union.
The Comparative Methods. The founder of this method was an academician L.V.Sherba and the follower of tins method wsui Prof . L.V. Rakhmanovov. The main principle of this method is to acquire all language skills using- the mother tongue of the learners. This method flourished in the 40tu and 50"1' in the former Soviet Union. The Comparative Method was contributed by L.V.Sherba, K.A.Ganshina, I.A.Gruzinskaya, A..A.Lobarskava, G.V. Galshtain, R.K.Rozenberg and Z.M.Tsvetkova. They compiled very many textbooks, manuals and methodological literature. This method may be called “SherbaRakhmanov's Method”. In the 60-th the modernization period of the method began. V.S. Tsetlin published her book “Методика обучения грамматическим явлениям французского языка в средних школах”. It was a great methodological manual. In 1967 a group of methodologists created “General Methods of Foreign Language Teaching in a secondary school”.

Since 1961 to the present time the method which has been successfully used in the process of Teaching Foreign languages in our country in the modernized conscious-comparative method. It be called Rakhmanovs’5 and his pupils' method. The history of the methods of Foreign Language Teaching in the former Soviet Union is divided into four stages. The 1SI stage is from 1917-1923; The 2nd stage is FROM 1924- 1931; The 3rd stage is from 1932-1946; The 4th stage is from 1947-1959; The 5th stage is form 1960-ur to the present time. Each period is characterized by the changes of the amis (objectives) in foreign language teaching and is baaed on some de&rute scientific principles and approach, A scientific approach to foreign language teaching has always been followed m the Soviet Union. Every pupil has to learn a foreign and acquire habits and stalls m using it. As early as 1932 the decree of the USSR government emphasized.

Since then intensive research work has been carried out in tins field. As a result our schools have received new courses adjusted to the needs of Soviet schooling various textbooks and on the improvement of leaching methods have been published. Further development of foreign language teaching has been encouraged by the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. On Improving Foreign Language Learning > adopted in 1961. This gave rise to extensive research work with the emphasis on experimentation. The result in new textbooks and white series supplementary teaching materials now in use in schools. These are the main features of the method, which we believe may be recommended for the teaching of foreign language in schools.

1. The aims of our teaching are practical, educational and cultural. "The teaching of a foreign language must first and foremost lead pupils to practical mastery of it. There are four abilities to train: hearing, speaking, reading, writing with understanding as the main ingredient in each. Tim indicates that the teacher's chief concern should not be only over difficulties of pronunciation, the growth of vocabulary or grammar, but over language abilities, that is, over getting pupils language abilities into action. The learning of any new language can add to the pupil’s mental equipment, sharpen his wits and develop his intelligence. Foreign language teaching in schools should also contribute to the pupils’ general development.

2. The method is based upon a scientific approach to the determination of the content of teaching. This implies careful selection of linguistic material a clear idea of desired, result in terms of the habits and skills that should be acquired by pupils, in the other word, the exact knowledge of what one expects to achieve at every stage of instruction.

3. The method is guided by the following principles:

A) Oral language is the principal means of teaching a foreign language to achieve any objective the teacher sets.

B) The method is based on the following sequence of language activities: pupils assimilate the material orally before they read and write it.

C) Active teaching techniques are widely used: visual audio and Audio-visual aids, teaching materials for stimulating the pupils’ speech activities.

D) Special emphasis is laid on a definite sequence in forming language skills:

- getting information about a language unit;

- various drill exercises within the target language sufficient for fixing the material in pupils' memory and forming habits in using it;

- a large number of creative exercises for the pupils to participate actively in the process of communication;

E) The method staves for constant increase of active tame for each pupils to practice in hearing, speaking, reading and writing. All this should find its reflection in a sequence of lessons as well as in each separate lesson. It should also be applied to work after classes (extra-curricular work and optional course). Since the distinguishing features of the method are (1) a conscious approach to language learning and (2) the assimilation of the language through pupils' practice in using it. We may accept the name offered by B.V. Belynev, the conscious – practical, to emphasize the language skills from conscious approach to automaticy. Such an approach to foreign language teaching is psychological sound and folly justified as has been proved by numerous investigations and experiments carried out by Soviet methodologists. Since it is the teacher who teaches pupils a foreign language, a few words should be said about his work.

Teaching a foreign language is hard work. But hard work will nearly always bring success. When a teacher does his best to make his pupils do the work. P.Gurrey is right when he says that few people realize what, an increasing expenditure of thought and energy is essential for teaching this subject. Indeed, a foreign language teaching requires so much mental and physical activity because of the complexity of language learning. On the one hand, the teacher must provide his pupils with the knowledge of different aspects of the language (phonetics, grammar, and vocabulary), on the other hand' he should equip them with habits and skills in hearing (listening comprehension), speaking, reading and writing; Hence the teacher of a foreign language needs:

(1) A good command of the language he teaches and a. sufficient knowledge of its phonic, graphic, grammar systems and vocabulary:

(2) A knowledge of pedagogic and psychology; the nature of the learner and the nature of teaching and learning processes;

(3) A knowledge of teaching methods and techniques, the best and most effective ones to use; an understanding of the purpose and aim each method and device he uses;

(4) Confidence and skill in his handing of teaching techniques. This will allow the teacher to find the right approach to each particular situation and, therefore, to be really proficient.



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