A branch of study. Methods (Методика) as a branch of study is the science of ways or manners (methods) of teaching. Methods of foreign language teaching is the science of methods teaching foreign languages

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Literature



  1. Методика обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе / Сост. Гез А.И ,Ляховицкий М.В, Миролюбов А.А ,Фоломкина С.К ,Шатилов С.Ф Москва высшая школа 1982.

  2. Теоретические основы обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе/Под редакцией Клименко А.Д ,Миролюбова А.А Москва педагогика 1981

3) Rogova G.V “Methods of Teaching English” Moscow 1983

Lecture 3
Theme: Main (Basic) Methodological concepts
a) Basic methodological concepts in Methods

b) Methodological Principles

c) Some ideas on methods of teaching

d) Types of teaching methods

e) Methods of foreign language teaching

f) The system of teaching and teaching Aids


It is worthwhile discussing briefly the difference between three words which are often used when talking about teaching foreign languages: techniques, methods and approaches. When we use the word approach we mean that an idea or theory is being applied: that whatever the teacher does certain theoretical principles are always born in mind.

When we talk about a technique we mean a procedure used in the classroom. Finally a method is a set of procedures or a collection of a techniques used in a systematic way which it is hoped will result in efficient learning.



A technique then is the narrowest term, meaning one single procedure. A method will consist of a number of techniques, probably arranged in a specific order. The word approach is much more general and has the implication that whatever method or techniques the teacher uses, he does not feel bound by these, but only by the theory in which he believes. If he can find new and better methods or techniques which will fit in with his approach, then he will adopt these.

We therefore have a hierarchical system:

Approach

Method 1 Method 2 etc

Technique A Technique 2 etc.

It follows from this that different approaches may share the same techniques and even the same methods; and different methods may share the same techniques. We have already introduced the scheme of behaviorist learning theory. In this case it makes sense to talk about “the behaviorist approach” but “the audio - lingual method”. We can also talk about different drilling “techniques”.

A final word of warning Approach has been introduced: later we will introduce the mentalist approach and the communicative approach. However approach is often used informally to mean something closer to method. We might say for example that a teacher should “vary his approach when teaching different types of class”. This does not mean that the teacher should change his theoretical believes for each type of class! Some techniques have developed independently, but many of the important ones have arisen from particular methods Success in teaching a foreign language and in learning this subject depends greatly on the interrelation of aims, content and principles which determine the strategy of this bilateral process. Indeed aims settle the content of teaching; methodological principles decide the methods and techniques of the teaching learning process. Methods of teaching include those things that are done to stimulate learning Method may be defined as away of governing or guiding the learning. In teaching learning process method may be conceded as a structural - functional component of Teacher Learner activity. Teacher and learner are interrelated. This interrelation is carried out through methods. The main function of the teacher is to help pupils to learn namely:

1) The teacher organizes their learning.

2) he instructs and educated pupils.

3) He provides the evaluation and checking of pupils’ learning.

The main function of a learner lies in the very process of language learning:

1) The acquisition of knowledge about a linguistic or language item the pupil is to learn.

2) drill and transformation or the process of manipulating knowledge to make it fit new tasks, new situations to form habits.

3) Making use of what he learns in the act of communication developing language skills.

One more important task should be emphasized in teaching-learning process, i.e. evaluation, checking whether the way the pupil learns the adequate to the task. When the pupil uses the material learnt in the act of communication in hearing, speaking, or reading the teacher checks the pupils’ ability to communicate in the target language. New knowledge is acquired by illustration and object teaching by pictures and maps, by explanation and by stimulation of the thought on the part of the teacher of those teaching materials which are used for the purpose.

Each method is realized in techniques. We mean an individual way of doing something in gaining a certain goal in teaching –learning process. For Example, while organizing pupils’ acquisition of a new should the teacher can use either demonstration of the pronunciation of the sound ,or an explanation of how the sound should be pronounced in the target language or he uses both demonstration and explanation to help pupils to grasp this sound and produce it correctly as an isolated element, then in a word in which it occurs and in various sentences with the word.

The choice of techniques is of great importance for effective teaching, since the techniques the teacher uses may produce poor or good effect on pupils learning. E.g. Only imitation

The choice of techniques for each method depends mainly on the methodological principles the teacher observes. In the example the teacher violates the principle of conscious approach in teaching reading. When organizing pupils’ acquisition of a new material the teacher thinks of the techniques which are more suitable for his pupils, he takes into consideration pupils’ age, their progress in language learning, their intellectual development, and the conditions under which pupils learn. It is very important that the techniques used by the teacher should put the pupils in such a position that he is faced with the necessity to solve problems that require thinking and not only merely memorizing. The pupil would not only reproduce the speech unit, but would himself be able to build sentences, for example, be able to gay: we are going to go on a Nike next Sunday.

Give me a pen.

It may be concluded that methods indicate an activity that is organized by the teacher and carried out by the pupil in the process of learning a foreign language. Methods possess a universal character and may be found in any system of teaching ways and techniques are the precise content of actions which differ considerably from each other depending on the principles that are accepted in the teaching of a given subject in schools. Consequently the choice of techniques is determined by the methodological principles which govern the teaching of foreign languages in schools.




Literature



  1. Методика обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе / Сост. Гез А.И, Ляховицкий М.В, Миролюбов А.А ,Фоломкина С.К ,Шатилов С.Ф Москва высшая школа 1982.

  2. Теоретические основы обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе/Под редакцией Клименко А.Д ,Миролюбова А.А Москва педагогика 1981

3) Rogova G.V “Methods of Teaching English” Moscow 1983

Lecture 4
Theme: Teaching aids and teaching materials

Problems:

1. Introduction

2. Teaching aids

a) non-mechanical aids

b) mechanical aids

3. Teaching materials:

a) A teaching book

b) Pupil’s

c) Programmed materials

d) Visual materials

e) Audio materials

f) Audio-visual materials

4. The qualities of teaching materials

5. Implementing Teaching Aids and materials into school life

Teaching Aids and teaching Materials

To achieve effective classroom learning under the conditions of compulsory secondary education, the teacher must use all the accessories he has at his disposal in order to arouse the interest of his pupils and retain it throughout the lesson which is possible only if the pupils are actively involved in the very process of classroom learning. To teach a foreign language effectively the teacher needs teaching aids and teaching materials. During the last few years important developments have taken place in this field. As a result there is a great variety of teaching aids and teaching materials at the teacher’s disposal.



Teaching aids.

By teaching aids we mean various devices which can help the foreign language teacher in presenting linguistic material to his/her pupils and fixing it in their memory, in testing pupils’ knowledge of words, phrases and grammar items, their habits and skills in using them. Teaching aids which are at teachers’ disposal contemporary schools may be grouped into:

a) Non-mechanical aids

b) Mechanical aids



Non-mechanical aids are: a blackboard is perhaps the most useful of visual aids and the majority of teachers would feel hammered in a classroom which did not have one. It is the oldest aid in classroom; the teacher turns to the blackboard whenever he needs to write something while explaining some new linguistic material to his pupils,

correcting pupils’ mistakes, or arranging the class to work at some words and sentence patterns, etc.; the blackboard can also be used for quick drawing to supply pupils with “objects” to speak about; Unfortunately many teachers do not make full use of the blackboard or they use it badly. Some hints:

1) Turn to the students as you are writing and turn round frequently to face them.

2) ask them what they think this word picture is going to be

3) Get them to read things as you write them

4) Ask them to spell the difficult words for you

When writing try standing on the right of the board as the students see it. Word drawing, saying that they can’t draw, often without ever having tried. However, simple stick figures are not beyond even the most hopeless artist, and with a little practice every teacher can learn enough to draw simple pictures for drills or picture compositions. The blackboard is probably the most useful visual aid available to use, but our lessons can be enlivened enormously if we have other aids at our disposal.

A flannel board (a board covered with flannel or other soft fabric for sticking pictures on its surface). It is used for creating vivid situations which would stimulate pupils' oral language; the teacher can have a flannel board made in a workshop or by one in a specialized shop; the use of a flannel board with cutouts prepared by the teacher or by the pupils leads t active participation in the use of the target language as each pupil makes his/her own contribution to working out "a scene" on the flannel board;

A magnet board (a board which has the properties of a magnet, i.e., can attract special cards with letters, words, phrases, or pictures on it) used with the same purpose as a flannel board.

Mechanical aids are: the tape-recorder, interactive board, computers has come to be an invaluable aid to the language learner and teacher, and after the blackboard, is probably one of the most commonly used pieces of equipment in the classroom The tape-recorder allows the pupil to play back the tape listening to the speaker's voice and recording his own on the second tack (twin-track).

The tape-recorder is considered to be the most important aid in learning a foreign language. The tape-recorder can obviously be used for all the listening activities. Listening is a skill which requires a great deal of concentration so it is a good idea to limit the time spent on continuous listening. A very motivating activity for students is to let them write and record dialogues. You could also record students' telling a story.

Positioning the tape-recorder is also an important matter. Try to use a speaker which directs the sound at the students; after all, you're not teaching the ceiling. Some criteria for choosing tuned material should be taken into consideration (see "A Training Course for TEFL" by Peter Hubbard).

A record-player is also an audio equinment available in every school; the record-player is an indispensable supplement to contemporary textbooks and other teaching materials.

An opaque projector or epidiascope used for projection of illustrations and photographs.

A filmstrip projector which can be used in a partially darkened room.

An overhead projector used for projection of a table, a scheme, a chart, a plan, a map or a text for everyone to see on a screen. They can be used both in a daylight and artificial light.

Television and radio equipment: Television would make it possible to demonstrate the language in increasingly varied everyday situations; pupils are invited to look, listen and speak; television and radio programmes are broadcast, but it is not always easy for teachers using these programmes to synchronize their lesson time with the time of the television or radio transmission;

Teaching machines which can be utilized for present information to the pupils, for drilling, or testing; the teaching machine can provide an interaction between the pupil and the "programme"; the learner obtains a stimulus and a feed-back from his/her response; thus, favorable conditions are created for individual pupils to learn, for instance, vocabulary, grammar, reading, etc.



A language laboratory. This is a special classroom designed for language learning. It is equipped with individual seats or semi-private stalls. They are connected with a network of audio writing, the nerve centre of which is the monitoring console which has a Switch board and tape decks, making it to all possible to play tapes And send the programme to all or any combination of booths. The teacher at the monitoring console can listen in, or can have :i two-way conversation with any pupil. There are two main of language laboratories-library a broadcast system.

The language laboratory is used for listening and speaking. It is used for "structural drills" which usually involve rephrasing sentences according to a model, or effecting the substitutions.

The language laboratory keeps a full class of pupils working and learning for the entire period, and thus enables the teacher to teach the foreign language more effectively The teacher must know about each aid described above, be able to operate it, and train pupils to use it. When used in different combinations teaching aids can offer valuable help to the teacher of a foreign language in making the learning of this subject in schools more effective for pupils. Teaching Materials By teaching materials we mean the materials which the teacher can use to help pupils learn a foreign language through visual or audio perception. They must be capable of contributing to the achievement of the practical, cultural, and educational aims of learning a foreign language. The following teaching materials are in use nowadays: teacher's books, pupil's books, visual materials, audio materials, and audio-visual materials.

A teacher's book must be must be comprehensive enough to be a help to the teacher. This book should provide all the recorded material summaries of the aims and new teaching points of each lesson; a summary of all audio and visual materials required; suggestions for the conduct of the lesson and examples of how the teaching points can be developed.

Pupil's book must include textbooks, manuals, supplementary readers, dictionaries, programmed materials.



Textbooks.

The textbook is one of the most important source:; of obtaining knowledge. It contains the material at which pupils work both during class periods under the teacher's supervision and at home independently. The textbook also determines the ways and the techniques pupils should use in learning, the material to be able to apply it when hearing, speaking, reading and writing.

The modern textbooks for teaching a foreign language should meet the following requirements:

1. The textbooks should provide pupils with the knowledge of the language sufficient for developing language skills, i.e., they must include the fundamentals of the target language. 2. They ensure pupils activity in speaking, reading and writing, i.e., they must correspond to the aims of foreign language teaching in schools

3. The textbooks must arouse pupils' interest and excite their curiosity

4. The textbooks must extend pupils' educational horizon, i.e., the material of textbooks should be of educational value.

5. They should have illustrations to help pupils in comprehension and in speaking.

6. The textbooks must reflect the life and culture of the people whose language the pupils study.

Every textbook for learning a foreign language should contain exercises and texts. The textbooks should provide the revisions of words in texts, drills and speech exercises. Exercises for developing oral language should constitute 40-50 % of the exercises of the textbook. The other 50 % will be those designed for assimilating vocabulary, grammar, the technique of reading etc.

Manuals. It is a handbook which may be used in addition to the textbook.

Selected reading. There is a great variety of supplementary readers graded in forms and types of schools.

Dictionaries. For learning English there are some English-Russian, English-Kazakh, English- Kazakh dictionaries available.

Programmed materials. They are necessary when programmed learning is used. The main features of programmed learning are as follows

1. Learning by small easy steps. Every step or frame calls for a written or an oral response which requires both attention and thought.

2. Immediate reinforcement by supplying a correct answer after each response. The pupil is aware that his response is right. The steps are so small and the their arrangement is so orderly that he is likely to make very few errors. When an error occurs, he discovers his mistake immediately by comparing his response with the one given in "the feed-back",

3. Progression at the learning rate of each individual pupil. Each pupil can work at his pace.



Visual materials. Objects (Realia). There are a lot of things in the classroom such as pens and pencils of different sizes and colours/ books, desks, and many other articles which the teacher can use in presenting English names for them and in stimulating pupils' activities to utilize the words denoting the objects they can see, touch, point to, give, take, etc. Toys and puppets may be widely used in teaching children of primary schools, which is the case in the specialized schools. Flashcards. a) Picture flashcards b) word flashcards. A flashcarcl is a card with a letter, a sound symbol, or a word to be used for a quick showing to pupils and in this way for developing pupils' skills in reading and pronunciation. Picture flashcards have the advantage that the teacher can prepare them at his/her leisure at home. In this way, they can be made more attractive and colorful an can include details impossible to include in a hastily drawn blackboard picture. Although, they will probably be used in much the same sort of way and for much the same sort of purpose as blackboard drawings, they have the advantage of cutting down greatly on time as well as providing variety. One can also make double sided flashcards to use when drilling certain contrasting language items, e.g.

Side one: She usually drinks tea.

Side two: But now she is drinking champagne.

Wall-charts: A wall-chart is a big sheet of paper with drawing or words to be hung in the classroom and used for revision or generalization of some linguistic phenomenon, such as "English Tenses", "Passive Voice", "Rules of Reading" and so on. Posters or series of illustrations portraying a story. They are used as "props" in retelling a story read or heard.

Pictures. a) Object pictures (a bed, a cat, a table) b) Situational pictures (the picture of a boy lying in bed) c) Topical picture (a picture of a bedroom)

Printed pictures, magazine pictures. Printed and magazine pictures are one of the most useful visual aids available to teachers. The students can be presented with completely unusual situations in magazine pictures, which at the same time are stimulating and colorful. Magazine pictures are also easily accessible to everyone-they are cheap and easy to find.

Photographs. They are of two kinds: black-and-white and colorful e.g. "Views of London" and etc.

Albums. An album is a book of pictures or photographs which is used for developing pupils' language skills.

Maps and plans. In teaching English the maps of Great Britain, the USA, and other countries where English is spoken may be used. The plans, for example, of a house, building.

Slides. A slide is glass or plastic plate bearing a picture.

Audio materials. Tapes and records or discs belong to audio materials. Tapes and records are used for teaching listening comprehension, speaking, and reading aloud.

Audio-visual materials. Sound film loops and films, are examples of visual materials.

Sound film loops are becoming popular with the teachers. They are short (1,51,7 min.) and the teacher can play the film loop back as many times as necessary for the pupils to grasp the material and memorize it.

Films. Specially prepared educational films for language teaching have appeared, e.g., "Australia", "New York", "Winter Sports1' and other.

Teaching aids used in various combinations allow the teacher to develop his pupils' oral-aural skills: These materials are valuable for presentation, exercised, revision, testing. Visual materials have an important role to play in the development of hearing and speaking skills.

Teaching materials can also be used to assist in the general development of the pupil's personality, and 'his is of great educational value.

Teaching materials acquire special importance in gaining cultural aims. In this connection it is necessity to mention the qualities teaching materials should possess:

1. Authenticity

2. Clarity

3. Practicality

4. Appropriateness

According to A. Spicer, "The purpose of teaching materials is not to usurp the role of the teacher, nor even to make his work easier. Their main purpose is to make it possible for the teacher to teach more effectively, more interestingly and more economically. It is equally important that the material should help the pupil to learn more easily and more rapidly."


Literature

1) Методика обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе / Сост. Гез А.И, Ляховицкий М.В, Миролюбов А.А ,Фоломкина С.К ,Шатилов С.Ф Москва высшая школа 1982.

2) Теоретические основы обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе/Под редакцией Клименко А.Д ,Миролюбова А.А Москва педагогика 1981

Lecture 5
Theme: Methods of Foreign Language Teaching
Problems:

1. General Remarks.

2. The Grammar-Translation Method.

3. The Direct Method.

4. Henry Palmer's Method.

5. M. West's Method.



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