A branch of study. Methods (Методика) as a branch of study is the science of ways or manners (methods) of teaching. Methods of foreign language teaching is the science of methods teaching foreign languages

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Cognitivism


As a reaction to behaviourism, the "cognitive revolution" in the 1950s combined new thinking in psychology, anthropology and linguistics with the emerging fields of computer science and neuroscience.

Cognitive Learning Theory emphasised the learner’s cognitive activity, involving reasoning and mental processes rather than habit formation

Cognitive Language Theory emerged from the Chomskyan Revolution which gave rise in Language Method to Cognitive Code Learning, etc.

Cognitive learning goes beyond the behaviourist learning of facts and skills, adding cognitive apprenticeship to the learning process. Learners are encouraged to work out rules deductively for themselves. It focuses on building a learner’s experiences and providing learning tasks that can challenge, but also function as ‘intellectual scaffolding’ to help pupils learn and progress through the curriculum. Broadly speaking, cognitive theory is interested in how people understand material, and thus in aptitude and capacity to learn and learning styles (see Atherton). As such it is the basis of constructivism and can be placed somewhere in the middle of the scale between behavioral and constructivist learning.



Chomsky

Noam Chomsky is identified with the Innatist or Nativist theory. As seen in the discussion under the age factor, Chomsky claims that children are biologically programmed to acquire language, as they are for other biological functions such as walking, which a child normally learns without being taught. While the environment supplies people who talk to the child, language acquisition is an unconscious process. The child activates the Language Acquisition Device (LAD), an innate capability or blueprint that endows the child with the capability to develop speech from a universal grammar.



Cognitive Code Learning

With the Chomskyan revolution in linguistics, the attention of linguists and language teachers was drawn towards the ‘deep structure’ of language and a more cognitive psychology. Chomsky’s theory of Transformational-generative Grammar focused attention again on the rule-governed nature of language and language acquisition rather than habit formation. This gave rise in the 1960s to Cognitive Code Learning where learners were encouraged to work out grammar rules deductively for themselves.




Deductive Learning

Grammatical explanations or rules are presented and then applied through practice in exercices

Inductive Learning

Learners are presented with examples. They then discover or induce language rules and principles on their own

Cognitive code learning achieved only limited success as the cognitive emphasis on rules and grammatical paradigms proved as off-putting as behaviourist rote drilling.

These new methods succeed initially when introduced by skilled and enthusiastic teachers or personalities and are delivered in experimental or well financed situations with well behaved, responsive and motivated students and small classes. Problems arise, however, when attempts are made to widen such methods out to less ideal situations, with large classes, low motivation and discipline issues. Nevertheless, such methods may continue to thrive in privileged circumstances with motivated teachers.

Literature

1. “Методика обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе”. Составители: Гез А.И и другие. Москва, 1982

2. Зимняя И.А. “Психологические аспекты обучения говорению на иностранном языке”. Москва, 1978

3) G.V. Rogova “Methods of teaching English” Moscow, 1983

4) Designer’ methods is provided by Nunan (1989: 194-195) and Brown (2001: chapter 2).

Lecture 2

Theme: Aims, content and Principles of Foreign Language Teaching

Problems:



1. The aims of foreign Language Teaching

a) Practical

b) Educational

c) Cultural



2) Content of Foreign Language Teaching

a) Psychological component

b) Linguistic component

c) Methodological component



3) Principles of Foreign Language Teaching

a) The principle of accessibility

b) The principle of durability

c) The principle of conscious approach

d) The principle of activity

e) The principle of visuality

f) The principle of individualization

4) Summary

Aims, Content and Principles of foreign Language Teaching in a Secondary school.

1. The aims of foreign Language Teaching
Aims are the first most important consideration in any teaching. The teacher should know exactly what his pupils are expected to achieve in learning his subject, what changes he can bring about in his pupils at the end of the course, at the year term, month ,week, and each particular lesson i.e. he should know the aims and objectives of foreign language teaching in schools. The aims of foreign language teaching are threefold: Practical, Educational, and Cultural.

Practical - pupils acquire habits and skills in using a foreign language;

Educational -They develop their mental abilities and intelligence in the process of learning the foreign language;

Cultural - pupils extend their knowledge of the world in which they live.

Practical aims are consequent on the basic function of language, which is to serve as a means of communication. International intercourse is realized directly, through the spoken language or indirectly, through the written language, i.e. through printed, or hand – or type written texts. Therefore the school programs set forth the following practical requirements: the instruction must be such as to ensure that the graduates can converse in the foreign language on simple everyday subjects, using the speech material dealt with in the course, can read and understand without a dictionary an easy text in foreign language, and with the occasional use of a dictionary a text presenting moderate difficulties and can express in written form simple thoughts(wrote a short letter).

The foreign language as a school subject differs from other subjects of the school curriculum. Whereas the teaching, for instance of history is mostly connected with the imparting of historical laws and facts which pupils are to learn and the mother tongue leads to the mastery of the language as a system so that pupils will be able to use it more effectively in oral and written language, the teaching of a foreign language should result in pupils’ gaining one more code for receiving conveying information; same purpose as the native language: to use it as a means of communication.

The practical aims in teaching a language are four in number: hearing, speaking, reading and writing.

In foreign language learning all forms of work must be in close interrelation, otherwise it is impossible to master the language. However, attention should be given mainly to practice in hearing, speaking, and reading. Thus pupils must achieve a level in their knowledge of the language, which will enable them to further develop it at an institute or in their practical work.



Educational aims. Learning a second language is of great educational value. Through a new language we can gain an insight into the way in which words express thoughts, and so achieve greater clarity and precision in our own communications. When learning a foreign language the pupil understands better how language functions and this brings him to a greater awareness of the functioning of his own language. Since large is connected with thinking through foreign language study we can develop the pupil’s intellect.

Teaching a foreign language helps the teacher develop the pupils’ voluntary and involuntary memory, his imaginative abilities, and will power. Teaching a foreign language contributes to the linguistic education of the pupil, the latter extends his knowledge of phonic, graphic, structural, and semantic aspects of language through contrastive analysis of language phenomena. In teaching a foreign language the teacher is called upon to inculcate in pupils the scientific outlook, to prepare the young people for an active participation in production and other types of socially useful activities.



Cultural aims. The cultural aims mentioned in the school programs of foreign language imply the following tasks widening the pupil’s general and philological outlook developing their powers of abstract thinking, cultivating their sense of beauty and their appreciation of art. The reading of texts (English) is acquainting the pupils’ with the life and culture of the English - speaking nations, and with their manners and customs, will contribute to the mental growth of the pupils.

Later the ability of reading English and American authors in the original and texts in the English language reflecting the culture of the countries where that language is spoken will like wise serve the pupils as a means of attaining a higher general educational level.

Foreign language teaching should promote pupils’ general educational and cultural growth by increasing their knowledge about foreign countries and by acquainting them with progressive traditions of the people whose language the pupil gains a deeper insight into the nature and functioning of language of language as a social phenomenon.

2. Content of foreign language Teaching

What to teach or the content of foreign language teaching is one of the main problems the Methods deals with. The following component constitute the content of foreign language teaching in schools Instruction in a foreign language comprises ,like instruction in other school subjects (a) the imparting of knowledge, (b) the formation of habits, and (c) the development skills.



1. The first component of “what to teach” (content) is habits and skills which pupils should acquire while learning a foreign language.

Habits are series of connected acts which have become automatic or semi - automatic as the result of repetitions.

Skills - are combination of specific useful habits, serving a definite purpose and requiring the application of definite knowledge. The four basic skills to be acquired as the result of the study of a foreign language they are the ability to understand the language when heard, to speak it, to read it, and to write it. In other words they are hearing (language comprehension), speaking, reading, and writing. The level of habits and skills is determined by the syllabus for each form.

2. The second component of “what to teach” is a linguistic one. It includes on the one hand ,language material, such as sentence patterns, utterance - patterns, pattern-dialogues, text different in style arranged in topic and serving as starting points for the development of oral language and written language, which allows the teacher to reach the practical educational, and cultural aims set by the syllabys. For example, in the junior stage (4x5 forms) pupils should speak and read about school, home, town and countryside, nature, psychical training and sports. On the other hand, linguistic material. I.e. phonology, grammar and vocabulary, is carefully selected for the purpose.

3. The third component of what “what to teach” is a methodological component i.e. pupils should be taught how to learn the foreign language, how to work at he subject to attain the aims. To sum up, the content of foreign language teaching involves three main components:

1. Psychological components: habits and skills which ensure the use of the target language as a means of communication in oral (hearing, speaking) and written (reading, writing) forms.

2. Linguistic components i.e. language and linguistic material which should be assimilated to be used in language skills.

3. Methodological component i.e. the techniques which pupils should acquire to learn the foreign language in a most effective way.



3. Principles of Foreign Language Teaching.

Principle is defined as a guide to action, in our case as a guide to teaching. Methods of teaching foreign language are based on the fundamental principles of pedagogic (didactics). The seven didactic principles (consciousness, activness, visuality, consecutiveness, systematicness, accessibility, and durability) are interdependent and mutually complementary. In each subject those principles are applied specifically. For instance, the principle of visuality is differently realized in the teaching of mathematics, geography and foreign languages. different visual aids are used in teaching different subjects, and the purposes of their use vary.



Scientific approach in foreign language teaching implies

Careful determination of what and how to teach to achieve the aims set by the syllabus. There are 3 aims mainly; the leading role belongs to the practical aim. One of the main methodological principles is the principle of practical or communicative approach. It means pupils should be involved in oral and written communication throughout the whole course of leaning the foreign language. This principle is realized in modern teaching aids and teaching materials now in use in schools. Pupils are taught to use the target language as a means of communication for listening comprehension, speaking, and reading.

Each language activity has its own set of actions which are characteristic of this activity (4 Language activities). The development of each activity requires certain techniques and exercises. Hence we have the following methodological principle - the principle of a differential approach in foreign language teaching-each activity requires special attention on the part of the teacher.

The principle of accessibility. In teaching of every subject including a foreign language, the principle of accessibility is realized through conformity with the following requirements:

1. The subject- matter of the instruction must correspond to the age and mental powers of the learners; be either too difficult ,nor to easy or too childish for them.

2. be rightly closed, i.e. be neither overabundant, nor scarce ; this refers to the whole course as provided for in the program, to teach lesson, and each home –assignment; in terms of time relations this means that the rate of progress of the instruction must be neither too rapid nor too slow;

3. Be properly graded; each stage should be prepared by, and follow logically from, the preceding stages, without gaps or missing links in the previous instruction.

4. be so presented that the pupils have to grapple only with one difficulty at a time; graduation of difficulties is also an indispensable condition of accessibility. For example, new grammar material should be introduced on familiar lexical material lest the pupils should be confronted simultaneously with two sets of difficulties. Or in teaching the Past Indefinite tense aspect form of the verb the affirmative form must be introduced first, then the interrogative and negative.
The Principle of Durability stands somewhat apart from the other didactic principles in so far as it determines the nature not of the teaching, but of the assimilation of the instruction.

To be exact, it (durability) means the ability of a pupil to keep in his memory linguistic and language material he learns of ready access, i.e. the pupil can use units of language semantic-patterns whenever he needs them for oral or written communication. The durability is ensured : by vivid presentation of the material ,when pupils are involved in the act of presentation ,their thinking and senses are at work; by constant revision or drill pupils reproduce the material ,and review it throughout the course, their auditory, visual, kinesthetic and motor analyzers are at work;

By the use of the material on the part of the learners for communicative needs: pupils and read texts with various assignments to get information through hearing and reading, they carry on conversation within the topics and material covered; By systematic control;

By constant supervision of pupils’ habits and skills on the part of the teacher. Under these conditions pupils keep the material in their memory because it is constantly reviewed by them and revised by the teacher. Modern methodology pays much attention to this principle. The idea of intensive work of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic analyzers has been made real because of the use of various teaching aids and teaching materials.



The Principle of Conscious approach.

Consciousness as a principle of didactics, or in one of the two main senses of this word, (сознательность, сознание) is knowledge, and understanding by the learner (pupils) of what he or she is doing. Pupils understand both the form and the content of the material they are to learn, and they are aware of how they should treat the material while performing various exercises which aim at developing habits and skills in using it. Such an approach to language learning usually contrasts with “mechanical” learning through repetitive drill. In teaching a foreign language therefore, it is reasonable to help pupils in assimilating language rules which function in this language by introducing the rules, rather tan to wait until the learners deduce these rules through speech activity. V.A. Artemov a prominent psychologist, B.V. Belyaev and others whose contribution to foreign language teaching is considerable insist, on a similar conscious approach to foreign language teaching. Only language practice supported by the theory can develop language habits and skills in a desirable direction and lead to mastering of a foreign language.



A conscious approach to foreign language teaching implies the use of the learner’s native language (mother tongue).Comparison contributes to the thorough understanding of the material studied, since it causes the learner to observe and analyze the linguistic phenomena. These may be compared with other phenomena of the mother tongue, or with their counterparts in the foreign language. When a pupil begins to learn a foreign language the words of this language are often associated with the words of the mother tongue first. However, thanks to constant practice the intermediate link –native language –fades, and foreign language words come into the pupils consciousness directly in connection with the concepts they express. Mastery of the language means formulating one’s thoughts within the foreign language. We should use mother tongue as a means of teaching whenever it helps pupils in acquiring knowledge necessary for developing habits and skills. In teaching and learning, the foreign language and the mother tongue are closely connected and influence each other. The pupil can transfer language skills acquired in the native language to those in the target language.

Historical comments on linguistic phenomena also contribute to the conscious assimilation of the language. For instance, information on the origin of the articles helps to understand their meaning, and this is true especially of the indefinite article. However, comparison with the mother tongue, and historical comments made in the mother-tongue, should not take up more than a very small part of the time allotted to the teaching of the foreign language. The pupil’s mother tongue often interferes with the target language, i.e., the formation of new habits in hindered by habits already acquired. For instance, pronunciation habits in the mother tongue hinder the development of pronunciation habits in a foreign language. Habits and skills of connect speech, from grammar viewpoint, lead to constant mistakes in the foreign language as the pupils try to transfer the structure of one language to that of the other. In the studying English or French Kazakhstan-speaking pupils often make mistakes in word-order. We believe that the best way to overcome interference is, on the one band, some comparison of language phenomena in both languages clearly showing the peculiarities of the foreign language its distinctive features, its characteristics, and, on the hand, constant practice in the foreign language that helps to overcome interference in developing pupils’ habits and skills language it is necessary to cope with the mother tongue of pupils.

This means that teaching a foreign language, for example, English to Russian, Kazakhstan, Arabic-speaking pupils should differ in the arrangement of language material and in the techniques of its presentation and retention. We cannot ignore pupils’ native tongue in teaching a foreign language when searching for the shortest and most sound ways to the desired end. Indeed, Kazakhstan-speaking pupils and Georgian speaking pupils have different troubles in learning English. Internal of English-English comparison, also, should as a rule be preferred to external or English-Russian, or English- Kazakhstan. For example, the pupils will profit more if in explaining the words hand and arm, both of which correspond to the one Russian word рука, Kazakh word кол ,the teacher does not only speak Russian or Kazakhstan, proceeding form the two meaning of the Russian word, but having first used direct demonstration.(This is my hand, this is my arm), further says, we take things with our hands; a mother carries her baby in her arms; gloves are for the hands; the sleeves of a shirt or of a coat are for the arms; little children sometimes walk hand in hand; grown up people sometimes walk arm in arm;

Conscious approach in the foreign language teaching implies that the pupil should understand the material they are to learn to be able to transform it and apply in communication in the target language. Transformation is connected with pupils’ abilities to make the material fit new situations, new tasks.

Conscious approach in foreign language teaching implies pupils’ comprehension of the material they study. For example, they can single out topical sentences while reading a text, main ideas while listening to a text; pupils can the material for practical needs. Consciousness also implies the development of independent work in pupils at the target language, which in its turn ensures favorable conditions for extending their knowledge and perfecting habits and skills.



The Principle of activity (Activeness)

Activeness is largely dependent upon interest. We know that the chief psychological factor naturally conditioning interest is relatedness to self. In order to awaken or stimulate the pupils’ interest in the English language the teacher will tell them at the very first lesson about the manifold possibilities that open out before each of them at the result of studying that language. The learner should feel a need to learn the subject and have necessary prerequisites created for satisfaction of this need; The main sources of activity are motivation, desire and interest in reading the original interesting and useful books written in English; corresponding with English schoolchildren; conversing with foreign guests to our republic, perhaps visiting or being sent on a mission to one of the countries of the English- speaking nations and converting with the residents in their own language. Exchange of pupils freedom support Act, ACCELS and others .Young people in our republic want to know foreign languages to illustrate this we may refer to the entrance examinations of language departments of higher schools where the competition is great. To the growing number of people who wish to study at various foreign language courses to the desire of parents to sent their children to specialized schools and etc. The great desire to study foreign language is observed among pupil of the 5th, 6 th , form. In other forms (классах) there is a tendency to the loss of interest in language learning. This shows that there is something wrong in teaching this subject. The teachers fall to sustain and develop the desire to learn which pupils have when they start the course. If the teacher wants to stimulate pupils’ interest in the subject he should make them use their knowledge for practical needs while talking, reading, doing various exercises of a communicative character which are creative by nature. Consequently in teaching a foreign language it is necessary to stimulate pupils activity by involving them in the act of communication in the target language either in its oral (hearing, speaking) or written (reading , writing) form. At all stages an Activeness should be coordinated with accessibility. In our opinion ,from the viewpoint of activeness a lesson in a foreign language should be judged by the following criteria:

1) The relative extent of the use of the foreign and the native language

a) by the teacher and b)by the pupils;

2) The relative duration of the part of the lesson taken up by speech in the foreign language by the pupils;

3) The relation between speech by the teacher and by the pupils;

4) The readiness and the quality of the pupils’ answers to the teacher’s questions; 5) The use by the pupils of their power of guessing;

6) The number and the contents of the questions asked by the pupils

a) Of the teacher and b) of their comrades.

7) Correction by the pupils and

a) Their own and

b) of their comrades mistakes.



The principle of visuality in foreign language teaching is consistent with the psychological principle of associative memorization and with Pavlov’s theory of the two signaling systems: A wide use of visuality in the teaching all the subjects is also as main requirement of didactics. Since the gaining of knowledge begins either with sense perception or with what has been formerly perceived that is with previous experience. In foreign language teaching the realization of the principle of visuality primarily finds expression in the direct or visual modes of semantizing, or explaining meanings i.e. the demonstration and naming by the teacher of objects, pictures and actions, wherefore the learners infer the meanings of the words and expressions used. The use of visual aids develops the pupils habits of speech enhances the emotional influence of visual impressions causing the desire to speak. Visualization allows the teacher to create natural conditions for pupils’ oral practice and “free conversation”. И.Е.Аничков, В.Н Снакянц: Visuality as applied in foreign language teaching of two kinds: Material (предметная нач-ть), consisting in the demonstration of objects and actions, and graphic (изобразительная нач-нь), consisting in the use of pictures, tables, and diagrams.

B.V Belyaev suggests the following classification for visualization. The use of visualization makes foreign language lessons emotionally colored, gets the pupils interested and awakens their thought. All these provide favorable conditions for the realization of the principle of conscious and active teaching and create natural situations for the use of language as a means of communication.



The principle of individualization in foreign language teaching is of great importance . The principle of individualization in foreign language teaching is of great importance since this subject is an essential one in the curriculum in out schools therefore each pupil should habits and skills the syllabys sets. However some individuals in a class learn more rapidly than others. The teacher should access the progress of each individual in the class and find the way hoe to manage the classroom activity so that the slowest learners are not depressed by being left behind and the fastest and most able learners are not frustrated by being held back. Individualization in foreign language teaching is achieved:

1) through the use of so-called “individual cards” (раздаточный материал)

2) through the use of the programmed materials when each pupil can work at his own place;

3) By special selection of exercises for each group of pupils in the class: bright average and dull; the former can do more difficult exercises than the latter; by the use of additional material, for example: for reading for bright pupils. by arranging pupils communication in the target language so that each pupil can do his best as a participant of the work done in the classroom. In conclusion it should be said that to apply the principle of individual approach in foreign language teaching the teacher should be familiar with the class, with its individuals.

The foreign language syllabus is the main document which lays down and the content of teaching foreign languages in schools



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