A branch of study. Methods (Методика) as a branch of study is the science of ways or manners (methods) of teaching. Methods of foreign language teaching is the science of methods teaching foreign languages


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Linguistic Aspect (chapter) consists of the language materials and speech materials, sentence structures, speech patterns and so on. necessary for speaking. These materials must be selected on the base of certain topics. Besides, some extraslinguist elements such as mime, actions and some other means must be kept in mind.

Psychological Aspect of speaking includes speech skills (language skills). That is reproduction, putting in the right place, transformation, extension, adding and mixing. Reproduction means reproducing (saying aloud, repetition) of what he (she) heard from the mouth of a teacher or recording.

Methodological Aspect includes the usage of methods, techniques of teaching speaking.

`It is important that pupils should use the means of basement (onopa, таянч). That is the means (onopa) of listening, seeing, words and etc.

4. As it was mentioned above there are 2 forms of speaking; monologue and dialogue. Each form has its peculiarities, In teaching monologue we can easily distinguish three stages according to the levels which constitute the ability to speak: (1) the statement level; (2) the utterance level; (3) the discourse level.

1. No speech is possible until pupils learn how to make up sentences in the foreign language and how to make statements. To develop pupils’ skills in making statements the following procedure may be suggested:

Pupils are given sentence patterns to assimilate in connection with situations. For example:

a) I can see a ....

b) I am fond of...

c) We are proud of...

Pupils are invited to perform various drill exercises within the sentence patterns given:

- substitution: L have a book (pen).

- extension: I have an interesting book. I have an interesting book at home.

- transformation:

He has a book; He has no book.

- completion: If I have time I will....

Pupils make statements of their own in connection with the situations suggested by the teacher. - Give it a name. Teacher: We write with it. Pupil: it is a pen (pencil). - make statements on the picture - say the opposite. - I live in Berdakh Street. I do not live in Berdakh Street.

2. Pupils are taught how to use different sentence patterns in an utterance about an object, a subject offered. First they are to follow a model, then they do it without any help. Teacher: Say a few words about it. (He points to an object) Pupil: This is a pencil. The pencil is green. It is on the table. I like the pencil. Get information and sum up What you have learnt from your classmate? Teacher: She cut her finger. Pupil: Who cut her finger? Class: Ann. - When did she cut it? - Yesterday.- What did she cut it with? - With a knife. - Why did she cut her finger? - Because the knife was sharp. This exercise is useful both for developing dialogue and monologue speech. At this stage pupils learn to express their thoughts, their attitude to what they say using various sentence patterns. Thus they learn how to put several sentences together in one utterance about a subject, an object, etc.

3. After pupils have learned how to say a few sentences in connection with a situation they are prepared for speaking at discourse level. At this level pupils are asked to speak on a picture, a set of pictures, a film-strip, a film, comment on a text they have read or heard, make up a story of their own. The three levels in developing pupils’ speaking should take place throughout the whole course of instruction, i.e., in junior, intermediate, and senior forms.

Rule for the teacher: In teaching monologue instruct pupils how to make statements first, then how to combine various sentences in one utterance and, finally, how to speak on a suggested topic. A dialogue consists of a series of lead-response units. the significant feature of a lead-response unit is that the response part may, and usually does, serve in its own turn as a fresh inducement leading to further verbal exchanges, i.e., lead-response- inducement-response. In teaching dialogue we should use lead-response units as a teaching point and pattern-dialogues as they involve all features which characterise this form of speech. (see pp. 189-193, Rogova). When a pattern dialogue is used as a unit of teaching there are three stages in learning a dialogue: (1) receptive; (2) reproductive; (3) constrictive (creative).

Rule for the teacher: In teaching dialogue use pattern dialogues; make sure that your pupils go through the three stages from receptive through reproductive to creative, supply them with the subject to talk about.

As to the relationship between monologues and dialogues, it should be vary from stage to stage in teaching speaking in schools. In the junior stage (4-6) dialogue speech, the one which allows the teacher to introduce new material and consolidate it in conversation, must prevail; in the intermediate stage (7-8-9) dialogue and monologue must be on an equal footing.

In the senior stage (10-11) monologic speech must prevail since pupils either take part in discussion and, therefore, express their thoughts in connection with a problem or retell text read or heard. To sum it up both forms of speech (monologue and dialogue) should be developed side by side with preference for the one which is more important for pupils’ progress in learning a foreigner language at a certain stage.

Prepared and unprepared speech.

Pupils’ speech in both forms may be of two kinds: prepared and unprepared. It is considered prepared when the pupil has been given time

enough to think over its content and form. The pupils’ speech is considered unprepared when, without any previous preparation, he can do the following: speak on a subject suggested by the teacher. (E.g.: Winter Holidays). Speak on the text read; speak on the text heard. Have an interview with a foreigner and etc.

It should be said that prepared and unprepared speech must be developed simultaneously from the very beginning. In the junior stage prepared speech takes the lead, while in the senior stage unprepared speech should prevail.


1. “Методика обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе”. Составители: Гез А.И и другие. Москва, 1982

2. Зимняя И.А. “Психологические аспекты обучения говорению на иностранном языке”. Москва, 1978

3) G.V. Rogova “Methods of teaching English” Moscow, 1983

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